"Have we read our own authors such as Dionne Brand, Afua Cooper and George Elliott Clarke? Do we know that the story of African-Canadians spans four hundred years, and includes slavery, abolition, pioneering, urban growth, segregation, the civil rights movement and a long engagement in civic life?" — Lawrence Hill
France was a colonial power in North America from the early 16th century, the age of European discoveries and fishing expeditions, to the early 19th century, when Napoléon Bonaparte sold Louisiana to the United States. French presence in North America was marked by economic exchanges with Indigenous peoples, but also by conflicts, as the French attempted to control this vast territory. The French colonial enterprise was also spurred by religious motivation as well as the desire to establish an effective colony in the St. Lawrence Valley. From the founding of Québec in 1608 to the ceding of Canada to Britain in 1763, France placed its stamp upon the history of the continent, much of whose lands — including Acadia — lay under its control. Through the use of encyclopedic articles, biographies, exhibits, study guides and searchable timelines, this collection features content related to this history.
Maritime Rights was a regional protest that climaxed in the 1920s. Essentially a reform movement, it was triggered by the region's declining influence in CONFEDERATION and its inability to protect important interests in transportation, tariffs, port development and federal subsidies.
One of the most important fur trade sites on the PEACE RIVER, a post operated at Dunvegan from 1805 to 1918. The first post was built by Archibald Norman McLeod of the North West Company to trade with the BEAVER and other First Nations who lived in the middle and upper reaches of the Peace River.
Most adult Canadians earn their living in the form of wages and salaries and are therefore associated with the definition of "working class." Less than a third of employed Canadians typically belong to unions. Unionized or not, the struggles and triumphs of Canadian workers are an essential part of the country's development.
Political controversy arose after a major refit in 1966-67, for which $8 million had been budgeted, cost between $12.5 and $17 million. As an economy measure, the government sold Bonaventure for scrap in 1970, although it could have had another 10 years of usefulness. It was not replaced.
Fort Wellington National Historic Site, designated in 1920, was one of the first HISTORIC SITES in Canada to receive national recognition of its historical importance. The first Fort Wellington was built by the British at PRESCOTT, Ont, on the north bank of the St Lawrence River.
The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada designated the battleground at Cook's Mills as a national historic site in 1921. Two years later, a plaque summarizing the story of the skirmish was mounted on a stone cairn on the field of action.
In 1976, the cairn was moved to the newly created Battle of Beaverdams Park in Thorold. Also moved to the park was a stone monument, erected in 1874, marking the grave of 16 American soldiers found during the construction of the third Welland Canal.
Fort Mississauga National Historic Site, located in NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE, Ont, was designated as a national historic site in 1931 by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. The British built Fort Mississauga between 1813 and 1823 to guard the mouth of the NIAGARA RIVER.
Fort St Joseph National Historic Site, near Sault Ste Marie, Ont, was designated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada in 1923 to recognize Fort St Joseph's significance as the most westerly British post and for its importance to the fur trade and to the alliances with First Nations.
The Battle of Queenston Heights National Historic Site commemorates a battle fought on 13 October 1812, when the British army and Canadian militia, assisted by First Nations allies, defeated an invading American army on the Niagara Escarpment overlooking the village of Queenston.
Mer de l'Ouest ("Western Sea"), originally the goal of exploration during the French regime, was the stuff of wishful thinking obligingly corroborated by Indians. Initially thought to be an inland sea somewhere west of the Great Lakes, it gradually blended in imagination with the Pacific.
Royal Assent on 22 June 1774 and put in effect on 1 May 1775, the Quebec Act (An Act for making more effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in North America) revoked the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Contrary to the proclamation — which aimed to assimilate the French Canadian population — the Quebec Act was passed to gain the loyalty of the local French-speaking majority of the Province of Quebec. Based on the experiences of Governors James Murray and Guy Carleton, it, amongst other things, guaranteed the freedom of worship and restored French property rights. The Act, however, had dire consequences for Britain’s North American empire. Considered one of the five “Intolerable Acts,” the Quebec Act was one of the direct causes of the American Revolution. It was followed in 1791 with the Constitutional Act.
The term Hochelaga historically referred to an Indigenous village the French explorer Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) visited on Sunday, 3 October 1535, during his second voyage in what is now Quebec (1535-1536). Hochelaga is an Iroquoian term which is either a variation of the word osekare, meaning “beaver path,” or of the word osheaga, which translates as “big rapids.” Today, Hochelaga refers to islands at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa rivers, as well as various electoral and city districts.