Sir John Alexander Macdonald was the dominant creative mind which produced the British North America Act and the union of provinces which became Canada. As the first prime minister of Canada, he oversaw the expansion of the Dominion from sea to sea. His government dominated politics for a half century and set policy goals for future generations of political leaders.
The 36 men traditionally regarded as the Fathers of Confederation were those who represented British North American colonies at one or more of the conferences that led to Confederation on 1 July 1867, including the Charlottetown Conference (September 1864), the Québec Conference (October 1864) and the London Conference (1866–67).1
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin, politician, lawyer, journalist (born 25 August 1826 in Québec City, Lower Canada; died 11 June 1906 in Québec City). Sir Hector-Louis Langevin played an important role in Confederation, defending the position of Québec and French-speaking Canadians at the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences of 1864, and again in London in 1866. He was a trusted administrator in Sir John A. Macdonald’s governments and an ardent federalist. Langevin was one of the original architects of the residential schools system, which was designed to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture.
Joseph-Israël Tarte, journalist and politician (born 11 January 1848 in Lanoraie, Canada East; died 18 December 1907 in Montréal, QC). A brilliant, caustic and often impulsive polemicist, Tarte was the owner and editor-in-chief of several newspapers throughout his career, including Le Canadien, L’Événement, La Patrie and the Quebec Daily Mercury, which he used to support various political factions and causes.
Ishbel Marie Marjoribanks Hamilton-Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, vice-regal consort, author, philanthropist and women’s rights advocate (born 14 March 1857 in London, United Kingdom; died 18 April 1939 in Aberdeen, United Kingdom). As Vice-Regal Consort to Governor General John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, from 1893 until 1898, Lady Aberdeen organized the National Council of Women in Canada, became first sponsor of the Women’s Art Association of Canada and helped found the Victorian Order of Nurses. Lady Aberdeen was the first woman to address the House of Commons and the first woman to receive an honorary degree in Canada.
Andrew Bonar Law, statesman, prime minister of Great Britain (b at Kingston, NB 16 Sept 1858; d at London, Eng 30 Oct 1923). The only colonial to become prime minister of Great Britain, Law grew up in simple surroundings, until at 12 he was sent to live with affluent relatives in Scotland.
By the 1870s, Allan's company, the Montreal Ocean Steamship Co (popularly known as the ALLAN LINE), also obtained government contracts to carry passage-assisted immigrants. Taking advantage of the Québec government's subsidies for colonization railways, Allan expanded into railway building.