Uxbridge, Ont, incorporated as a township in 1974, population 20 623 (2011c), 19 169 (2006c). The Township of Uxbridge is located 68 km northeast of Toronto on Highway 47. Its first settlers, in about 1806, were Dr Christopher Beswick and 12 Quaker families from Pennsylvania. They were soon joined by Scots, Germans and Pennsylvania Dutch. Incorporated as a town in 1885, Uxbridge's principal economic activity in the 19th century was as a service centre for local agriculture. The municipality was reputedly one of the first in Ontario to own its own waterworks.

The town of Uxbridge was amalgamated in 1974 with the townships of Scott and Uxbridge to form a new township in the Regional Municipality of Durham. Residents of note include local manufacturer Joseph Gould, an ally of William Lyon Mackenzie, who named the settlement after Uxbridge, Eng. Lucy Maud Montgomery, author of the "Anne" series, wrote more than half her published works while residing in Leaskdale, a hamlet just north of the town.