Kale (Brassica oleracea, Acephala Group), cole crop (like cabbage, cauliflower, etc), belonging to the Cruciferae family. Native to the Mediterranean, kales are now more common in northern temperate parts of the Eastern Hemisphere. Types with attractive curly foliage and coloured centres are used as ornamentals. Kales are cold hardy but not heat tolerant; thus, they do best as spring or fall crops. Curly kales are 35-45 cm high, 65-75 cm wide. Upright, straight-leaved cultivars (commercial varieties) attain 75-90 cm in height. They mature in 55-65 days. They are vulnerable to aphids, cabbage worms, loopers, root maggots, damping-off and blackleg. Kales produce neither heads nor edible flowers, but are used mainly as a potherb, and are rich in vitamins A, B1 and C. They are widely grown in Canadian gardens, but commercial production is limited.