Careless, James Maurice Stockford

James Maurice Stockford Careless, historian (b at Toronto 17 Feb 1919; d at Toronto 6 Apr 2009). A graduate of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (1940), James Careless had just begun graduate work at Harvard when he enlisted in the Canadian military effort during WWII. He worked in the historical branch of Naval Service Headquarters at Ottawa before transferring to the Department of External Affairs, serving as Canadian diplomatic officer overseas. Careless returned to academia following the war, and completed his studies at Harvard in 1950.

Careless began his teaching career at U of T as lecturer in history in 1945. He served as chairman of the history department from 1959 to 1967, and was made professor emeritus in 1984. Among Careless's contributions to the study of history are the development of an analytical framework for studying the rise of Canadian cities and the incorporation of ideas from the FRONTIER THESIS and the STAPLE THESIS. He is perhaps best known for his elaboration of the METROPOLITAN-HINTERLAND THESIS. Careless retired in 1984 but maintained an interest in historical research, and in 1987 he was named senior research associate at Victoria College and the Donald Creighton Lecturer at the University of Toronto.

Careless has been honoured for his historical writing (Tyrrell Medal, 1962; GOVERNOR GENERAL'S AWARDS for Canada: A Story of Challenge [1953], and Brown of The Globe [1963]), and has served on the boards of various historical societies and as mentor to a generation of urban historians. Additional renowned works include The Union of the Canadas (1967), The Rise of Cities (1978), Toronto to 1918: An Illustrated History (1984) and Frontier to Metropolis (1989).

J.M.S. Careless was elected a fellow of the ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA (1962) and appointed University Professor at U of T (1977). He was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1981 and received an honorary doctorate from the UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY in 1986.