The falls have eroded the soft shales and limestones of the escarpment at an average rate of 1.2 m per year and now stand 11 km from their place of origin at present-day QUEENSTON. Their recession rate has been variable though, as the volume of water flowing from the upper Great Lakes controls it.
Prairie, often considered a featureless flatland, actually contains great diversity, reflecting the depositional features associated with the Wisconsinan GLACIATION. Topography ranges from broad undulating plains to rolling hills and plateaus, often dissected by beautiful valleys and escarpments.
The larger islands in the archipelago support a range of fauna - among the largest of them, woodland caribou, moose, deer, bear, wolves and beaver. The waters themselves are home to over 70 species of fish, and support both a commercial and sport fishery.
St Croix River, 121 km long, rises in the Chiputneticook Lakes and flows SE to Passamaquoddy Bay, forming part of the border between NB and Maine. It was discovered (1604) by the French, and de MONTS built the first settlement in Acadia on Ile Sainte-Croix (now St Croix I) near the river's mouth.