Mohawk (Mohawk: Kanien’kehá:ka, “People of the Flint”) are Aboriginal peoples in North America. They are the easternmost member of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, also referred to as the Iroquois or Six Nations Confederacy. In the early years of the 17th century they resided on the banks of the Mohawk River in what is now upstate New York.
In Canada, the term Indigenous peoples (or Aboriginal peoples) refers to First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples. These are the original inhabitants of the land that is now Canada. In 2011, more than 1.4 million people in Canada identified as Indigenous. Though severely threatened — and in certain cases extinguished — by colonial forces, Indigenous culture, language and social systems have shaped the development of Canada, and continue to grow and thrive despite extreme adversity.1
The Kaska Dena or Denek’éh (often referred to simply as Kaska) are a Dene-speaking people who live in southern Yukon and northern British Columbia, primarily in the communities of Lower Post, Upper Liard (near Watson Lake), Watson Lake and Ross River in the Pelly drainage. The Kaska Dena Council represents the political, social and economic interests of about 3,000 Kaska people in Canada.
The traditional territory of the Cayuga Nation (alternate spellings include Guyohkohnyo and Gayogohó:no'), also known as the People of the Pipe or People of the Great Swamp, is located along the northern shore of the St Lawrence River and south into the Finger Lakes district of New York State.
The Cree (Nehiyawak in the Cree language) are the most populous and widely distributed Indigenous peoples in Canada. Cree First Nations occupy territory in the Subarctic region from Alberta to Québec, as well as portions of the Plains region in Alberta and Saskatchewan. As of March 2015, the registered population of Cree First Nations was more than 317,000. The National Household Survey recorded more than 95,000 speakers of Cree in 2011.
Abenaki (also referred to as Wobanaki or Wabanaki) take their name from a word in their own language meaning “dawn-land people” or “people from the east.” Their traditional lands included parts of southeastern Québec, western Maine and northern New England. As of 2016, the total registered population of Abenaki people on the Wôlinak and Odanak reserves in Québec is 1,909 and 2,457, respectively.