Music of the United States of America

The similarities between Canada and its southern neighbour are many. Both are New World pioneer societies settled largely by adventurers, fortune seekers, missionaries, colonizers, idealists, and refugees from repressive old-world societies; both share an emphasis on technology and materialism mixed with religious puritanism; both know extremes of climate, large geographical distances, and mixed settlements of people of many ethnic and linguistic origins. The obvious differences lie in the strong French component in the Canadian population, the Canadian allegiance to the British crown, from which the USA broke away over two hundred years ago, and, perhaps most significant in the musical context, the two populations' different rates of growth. For example, not only did the US population in 1980 exceed that of Canada by a ratio of ten to one, but comparisons of numbers of orchestras, music publishers, recording companies, library holdings, artist managements, professional schools, and so on, also reveal wide disparities. As an example, by the time the first sheet music was printed in Canada, ca 1840, US publishers already had issued more such music than Canada has issued in its entire history (to 1980).

For these reasons it is easy to forget that, if age be dated from the first settlement, Canada is the older of the two countries, and that despite the faster growth of the USA, Canada may claim the first organ (Quebec ca 1657), the first opera (Quesnel'sColas et Colinette, 1790), and the first earned B MUS (Toronto 1846).

17th And 18th Centuries

It should be borne in mind that for the larger part of these two centuries political boundaries bore no resemblance to those of modern times; certainly there was no US/Canadian border, real or dreamed of, until the second Treaty of Paris in 1783. Thus, Louisiana was settled by the French, and even in the 20th century remained a stronghold of survivals of French culture (Acadian, or 'Cajun'), boasting a wealth of transplanted French song which has had an enduring fascination for scholars, as has its counterpart in Acadian New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

It is well to remember, too, that from the first Treaty of Paris (1763) to the second - that is, between formal recognition of the British conquest of New France and British Recognition of American independence - Canada and New England, as colonies of Great Britain, were essentially one country. As the English-speaking protestant population increased after 1760, Canada provided a field for the singing-school movement (see Singing schools) that had arisen in the USA and, with it, for the numerous hymn-and-rudimentary-instruction books published in New England. Perhaps this explains the dearth of Canadian English-language church music publications until ca 1850.

From the USA also came strolling companies of actors, singers, and instrumentalists, many of European origin, whose performances entertained audiences from Halifax to Montreal. John Bentley is one of those who arrived in Canada in this way. Among the Loyalists who moved to Canada after the Revolution were some musicians, eg, Stephen Humbert, Jonathan Sewell, and David Willson (see Children of Peace).

19th Century

Because the USA grew so rapidly, it provided an abundance of employment for its own talented musicians, and few emigrated to Canada, where the need was supplied, instead, largely by immigrants from Belgium, France, Germany, and Great Britain. Many of those who did move to Canada from the USA were the children of French-Canadian expatriates, eg, Jean-Baptiste Labelle (a native of Plattsburgh, NY, 1828), Charles Labelle (from Champlain, NY, 1849) (see Labelle family), Orpha-F. Deveaux (b Hartford, Conn), and Chambord Giguère (b Woonsocket, RI). There were, of course, some Anglo-Saxons among the US arrivals: the Holman family in 1858 (see Holman English Opera Troup), Edward Fisher in 1875, Samuel Porter ca 1876, followed by his brother Charles H. Porter ca 1877, Arthur Bird (1856-1923; organist, pianist, conductor, and composer) in 1877, and Herbert L. Clarke, the cornet virtuoso, in 1880.

Even early in the century the USA had developed a significant music trade. Publishers such as Firth & Pond, Lee & Walker, O. Ditson, and later in the century G. Schirmer exported large quantities of printed music to Canada, while instrument companies supplied pianos and reed organs. Canadian music education and musical taste were shaped by US instruction books, hymn collections, and song albums, which in quantity far outweighed those from Europe.

European celebrities - Ole Bull, Jenny Lind, Henri Vieuxtemps, and others - would hardly have visited Canada had it not been on the way from New York to Detroit or from Boston to Chicago. US artists (eg, Louis M. Gottschalk) also performed in Canada, and whole orchestras visited (the Germanians - an orchestra of Berliners which settled in Boston ca 1850 - in the middle of the century and the Theodore Thomas Orchestra first in 1873). The National Opera performed in Canada in 1888, the Charley Opera of New Orleans, in 1899. In 1896 the Kneisel String Quartet of Boston made the first of several appearances in Montreal.

In the reverse direction there began, about the middle of the century, a slow but steady flow of Canadian musicians to the USA, where employment opportunities were easier and audiences more sophisticated (see also Emigration). Many of these Canadians not only managed to make decent livings but also made outstanding contributions to the musical development of their adopted country. This was true especially in music education. Calixa Lavallée, who served as choirmaster at the Boston Catholic Cathedral, became president of the Music Teachers' National Association and was a pioneer in the holding of 'all-American' concerts; Philip Cady Hayden was the founding father of the Music Educators' National Conference; and Hugh A. Clarke became one of the first two university professors of music (both appointed in 1875) and the author of many textbooks.

In the area of performance, Samuel P. Warren distinguished himself as a concert organist (see Warren family); Alfred De Sève, who succeeded Lavallée at the Boston Cathedral in 1891, was a member of and occasional soloist with the Boston SO; the violinist François Boucher settled in Kansas City (see Boucher family); and the pianists Salomon Mazurette and Waugh Lauder found appreciative audiences in Detroit and Chicago respectively.

Other Canadians who have lived in the USA will be listed below.

20th Century

While a strong British orientation prevailed in Anglo-Canadian universities and churches during the first half of the century, and while immigration came mostly from Europe, a US influence of overwhelming strength began to assert itself in several other areas of musical life. This resulted from the development of such mass-distribution media as sheet music, phonograph records, radio, movies, and finally television, as well as from the growth of important US music schools - the Eastman School, the Curtis Institute, the Juilliard School, and the New England Cons, which had outstanding teachers and were much closer than Leipzig, London, and Paris. Furthermore, a powerful, near-monopolistic concert industry made strong inroads into Canada (see Community Concert Associations).

From 1930 to about 1955 Canadians listened to more broadcasts of US orchestras and opera productions than of Canadian groups; they avidly read the Etude, Musical America, and the Musical Courier, but could not support a music magazine of their own for any length of time; they obtained more advanced music degrees from US than from Canadian universities (see Education, professional); they heard, in their concert halls, many minor US performers, in addition to the famous ones, to the disadvantage of Canadian artists of similar or higher calibre; the Canadian hit parade was the Broadway (and Paris) hit parade; the musicians' unions were directed largely from the USA; border cities such as Windsor and Detroit shared music-teaching facilities and symphony musicians; and the Haskell Opera House, straddling the Quebec-Vermont border, has served citizens of both countries.

In short, Canada enjoyed easy access to the best the USA had to offer, but at the same time was swamped by some of the worst and all but lost its musical initiative. After World War II, however, the process was slowed by a conscious effort to develop Canadian resources, from graduate music schools and schoolbooks to concert bureaus and a home-based recording industry. The establishment of the CLComp, the Canadian Music Centre, the CRTC, the ACO, and other national organizations, has gone far towards making musical relations between the two countries more balanced.

US immigration to Canada began to increase during the middle of the 20th century. Many US teachers came to Canadian universities. Richard Johnston, Robert Rosevear, and Ezra Schabas were among the first. The introduction of musicology into the Canadian university curriculum in the mid-1950s brought a many scholars; Harvey Olnick in 1954 and Welton Marquis in 1958 were among the first. A large influx of US musicians, in the 1960s and 1970s, was due partly to political developments and partly to the appeal of a country in which artistic challenge and potential were high. The typical US immigrant was an academic specializing in composition and/or musicology. The following list, indicating the year of arrival, presents only a sampling; it also illustrates dramatically the decline of immigration in the 1980s: Quenten Doolittle 1960, David Kaplan 1960, Elliot Weisgarber 1960, Thomas Schudel 1964, Bruce Lobaugh 1966, David Keane 1967, Janice Taylor 1967, Dennis Farrell 1968, Neil Rosenberg 1968, Phillip Werren 1968, Sterling Beckwith 1969, Phillip Young 1969, David Jaeger 1970, Monica Gaylord 1970, Larry Lake 1970, Steve Tittle 1970, Monte Keene Pishney-Floyd 1971, Paul Théberge 1971, Charles Foreman 1972, Donald and Margit McCorkle 1972, James Montgomery 1972, Eugene Cramer 1973, James Lee Fankhauser 1973, Gregory Levin 1973, Michael Colgrass 1974, Vladimir Simosko 1974, Stephen Chatman 1976, James Tenney 1976, Peter Ware 1976, Wallace Berry 1978, William Jordan 1978, Henry Meredith 1978, David Mott 1978, Alan Thrasher 1983.

Among immigrants in this period also have been countless orchestral and chamber music players, including several members of Canadian Brass, and the new music groups Nexus and NOVA MUSIC, among others. Some immigrants stayed only for a limited period, among them the conductor James De Preist, artistic director of the Quebec Symphony Orchestra, the musicologists Stephen Blum and Robert Cohen, the flutist Jeanne Baxtresser, and the composer David Rosenboom.

Prominent European-born musicians who have lived in the USA and resettled in Canada include Ernesto Barbini, Ernst Friedlander, Nicholas Goldschmidt, Andrew Hughes, Mieczyslaw Kolinski, Anton Kuerti, and Boris Roubakine.

Canadian concert artists and performing groups have visited the USA for many years. The Toronto Mendelssohn Choir made its first US appearance in Buffalo in 1905 and for many years was accompanied both in Toronto and on tour in the USA by the Pittsburgh Orchestra or the Chicago SO. With Percy Grainger as soloist the Winnipeg Male Voice Choir made its first US tour in 1922. In 1947 the Montreal Women's Symphony Orchestra became the first Canadian orchestra to play in Carnegie Hall, New York. The TSO performed in Detroit in 1951 and began annual visits to Carnegie Hall in 1973. The MSO made its US debut in 1976. Many Canadian soloists have had significant careers in the USA (eg, Colette Boky, Judith Forst, Glenn Gould, and Louis Quilico). Lois Marshall and Maureen Forrester, besides making many solo appearances in the USA, became members of the New York Bach Aria Group in the mid-1960s. As Canada's contribution to the US bicentennial celebrations, Somers'Louis Riel was performed by the COC at Washington's Kennedy Center. In 1979 the Birmingham (Alabama) Festival of Arts devoted its 10-day program to Canadian artists. Many Canadian musicians appeared in the 100th anniversary concert season of Carnegie Hall, 1990-1.

Individuals with US Careers

The following list provides brief notes on some Canadian-born or Canadian-trained musicians whose careers have been pursued mostly in the USA. Those who have entries of their own in EMC are named but not annotated. The selection of individuals has much to do with the number of years they spent in Canada, the ties they kept with Canada after emigration, and the importance of their contribution to Canada. The list is in chronological order by date of birth. (In addition to these, many others, some with EMC entries, others without, have had important connections with music in the USA. See also Blues; Country music; Dance bands; Guitar; Jazz; Metropolitan Opera; Rock.)

Composers

Hugh Archibald Clarke, b 1839 (See Clarke family.)

Calixa Lavallée, b 1842

George Grant-Schafer, b 1872

Edward Betts Manning, b Saint John, NB, (or possibly Prince Edward Island), 1874, d New York 1948. He studied composition with Edward MacDowell in New York, with Humperdinck in Berlin, and with Vidal in Paris and violin with Henry Schradieck in New York. He taught privately in New York and 1914-19 at Columbia U, and was also a music supervisor for the New York City public school system. His largest work, the three-act folk opera Rip Van Winkle (to his own libretto), was premiered 26 Apr 1919 at the Bronx House, New York; a revised version was given at Town Hall, New York, in 1930. Some of Manning's works have been published in CMH, including Fugue for piano (vol 6), the fine Piano Trio (vol 11), and excerpts from Rip Van Winkle (vol 10). Manning also wrote many songs, some published (eg, Six Limericks, Boosey & Co, New York 1911). Many of his manuscripts are held at the University of New Brunswick, Saint John campus.

L.J. Oscar Fontaine, b 1878

Cedric (Wilmot) Lemont, b Fredericton, NB, 1879, d New York 1954. He studied at the University of New Brunswick, at the Faelten Piano School and the New England Cons in Boston, and at Capitol College, Columbus, O, completing an M MUS. In 1906 he began teaching at the Walter Spry Music School (later Chicago Institute of Music). He acted as organist-choirmaster at churches in Fredericton and Chicago and taught privately in Fredericton and Brooklyn, NY. He was a contributor to various music journals and collaborated on three volumes of the American History and Encyclopedia of Music. Several hundred of his compositions, mostly anthems and pedagogical pieces, were published by Ditson, C. Fischer, and Presser; his set of studies Facile Fingers was a best-seller. Lemont's materials for junior- and intermediate-level piano students employed variegations of harmony and rhythm uncommon in the Teaching music of the period.

Gena Branscombe, b 1881

Nathaniel Dett, b 1882

Lorraine (Noel) Finley, b Montreal 1899, d Greenwich, Conn, 1972. Her teachers included J.-J. Goulet (violin) and Ada L. Richardson (piano) in Montreal, Louise Héritte-Viardot and Frank La Forge (voice) in Germany and New York, respectively, and Percy Goetschius and Rubin Goldmark (composition). In addition to her numerous published compositions, which include a Symphony in D, she translated into English, from 20 different languages, the words of more than 600 works ranging from the short pieces in National Anthems of United Nations and Associated Powers and Mozart concert arias to Milhaud's opera (her version, 1937) Le Pauvre Matelot.

Colin McPhee, b 1901

Gerald Strang, b Claresholm, Alta, 1908, d Loma Linda, Cal, 1983. He studied at Stanford U (BA 1928), at the University of California at Berkeley, and at the University of Southern California. His composition teachers included Charles Koechlin, Arnold Schoenberg, and Ernest Toch. Strang was Schoenberg's teaching assistant 1936-8 and editorial assistant 1936-50. He taught after 1938 at various California colleges and lectured on electronic music 1969-70 at the University of California at Los Angeles. He initiated the New Music Workshops in 1933, became director of the New Music Society of California in 1936, and edited the New Music Edition 1935-40. He was a consultant on building design and acoustics after 1950 for several US college and music departments and worked on computer and electronic music 1964-9 at the Bell Telephone laboratories in New Jersey and after 1964 at the University of California at Los Angeles.

Charles Jones, b Tamworth, Ont, 1910. He studied violin at New York's Institute of Musical Art and composition under Bernard Wagenaar. He taught 1939-44 at Mills College, Oakland, Cal, and later at the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, at the Bryanston School in England, and at the Seminar of American Studies in Salzburg. In addition he began teaching composition in 1951 at the Aspen Music School in Colorado and has taught in New York at the Juilliard School and the Mannes College of Music, where he was head of composition 1972-7. Jones' own compositions include four symphonies, six string quartets, two piano sonatas, and Allegory for divided orchestra (1970). His Sonatina for violin and piano (1942) and String Quartet No. 6 (1970) were recorded by CRI in 1972.

George Tremblay, b 1911. (See Amédée Tremblay.)

Reuel (or Ruel) Lahmer, b Maple, Ont, 1912. He was taken to the USA as a child and there studied at Columbia U and Cornell U, developing his abilities as composer, organist, choir director, and folksinger. He taught in the 1940s at Cornell and at Carroll College, Waukeska, Wisc, and served as head of the theory department at Colorado College. He was organist 1951-62 at the Church of the Ascension, Pittsburgh. He has composed choral, chamber, and orchestral works.

Henry Dreyfus Brant, b 1913. (See Saul Brant.)

Minuetta Kessler, b 1914

Dorothy Cadzow, b Edmonton 1916, d Seattle July 2001. After receiving a BA in music from the University of Washington she studied composition at the Juilliard School with Frederick Jacobi and Bernard Wagenaar. In addition to freelance arranging and teaching, she began teaching theory, orchestration, and composition at the University of Washington in 1959. Her compositions include works for orchestra, piano, and voice.

Robert Lenard Barclay (b Basham), b 1918

Emmanuel Ghent, b Montreal 1925

Galt MacDermot, b 1929

Sydney Hodkinson, b Winnipeg 17 Jan 1934; M MUS (ESM, Rochester) 1958, DMA (Michigan) 1968. He studied composition at the ESM with Louis Mennini and Bernard Rogers and at Princeton U in 1960 with Carter, Sessions, and Babbitt. He taught at the University of Virginia in 1960, Ohio State U 1963-8, and the University of Michigan 1968-73. In 1973 he began to teach conducting at the ESM, where he continued to teach in 1991. Hodkinson has received the Prix de composition Prince Pierre de Monaco (1967) and first prize (1966) for the National and second prize (1967) for the World congress of JM. His opera, Saint Carmen of the Main was featured at the 1988 Guelph Spring Festival with the composer conducting.

Songwriters

John A. Stromberg (b Stramberg), b Milton, P.E.I., 9 Nov 1858, d Freeport, Long Island, New York, 5 Jul 1902; grew up in P.E.I. and Nova Scotia and settled in New York City as orchestra leader, arranger and songwriter. He wrote the Jolson hit 'Rosie, you are my Rosie' (or 'Ma Blushin' Rosie') and also wrote for Lillian Russell and for Weber and Fields.

Cowles, b 1860. (See Musical theatre below.)

James Gardiner MacDermid, b Utica, Ont, 1875, d 1960. His teachers included B. Sanders in London, Ont, G. Tyler and F.E. Woodward in Minnesota, and A. Williams and G. Hamlin in Chicago. In addition to performing in recital and concert, he toured as accompanist to his wife, the singer Sybil Sammis MacDermid. His compositions include secular and sacred songs, many published by Forster Music Publishers Inc and by Horace J. Carver.

Geoffrey O'Hara, b 1882

Organists

Édouard and Arthur Dumouchel, twins, b 1841

Samuel P. Warren, b 1841. (See Warren family.)

Paul Ambrose, b 1865. (See Ambrose family.)

George H. Fairclough, b 1869. (See William E. Fairclough.)

J.-Ernest Philie, b St-Dominique de Magog, Que, 1874, d Montreal 1955. He studied organ and singing and taught in the Eastern Townships before taking a position ca 1900 as organist in Manchester, NH. After nine years there he moved to Woonsocket, RI, later to Fall River, Mass, and around 1920 to Springfield, Mass. He retired to Montreal in the 1950s. He wrote several masses, a cantata for choir and orchestra (Le Pays), and patriotic songs. His publishers were Theodore Presser and White, Smith.

Lynnwood Farnam, b 1885

Ernest White, b 1901

Bernard Piché, b 1908

Gérard Caron, b 1916

Paul Halley, organist, pianist, composer, choir conductor, b Romford, Essex, England, 12 Jun 1952; ARCT (1970), FRCO (1972), BA (Cambridge) 1973, MA (Cambridge) 1977. His family moved when he was 5 to Ottawa, where he studied with Russell Green, Gerald Wheeler, and Brian Law. He taught English in Jamaica 1974-6, was assistant organist at Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria 1976-7, and was organist and master of the choristers at the Cathedral Church of St John the Divine in New York 1977-90. In 1981 he joined the Paul Winter Consort with whom he has toured and recorded extensively. He was commissioned by the Canadian federal government to write Song for Canada/Un chant canadien (1984) to be sung at the Ottawa Canada Day celebrations.

Pianists

Calixa Lavallée, b 1842

Salomon Mazurette, b 1847

Waugh Lauder, b 1858

Jeannette Durno, b Walkerton, Ont, 1876, d Los Angeles 1964. She studied at the conservatory of the Ladies' College in Rockford, Ill, and with J.J. Hattstaedt at the American Cons in Chicago. She gave her first recital at seven and later made her professional debut in Vienna, where she also studied with Leschetizky. She taught in Chicago and appeared as soloist with many US and European orchestras. Her Canadian pupils included Evelyn Eby Bedford, Neil Chotem, and Lyell Gustin.

Gwendolyn Williams Koldofsky, b 1906

Arthur Gold, b Toronto 1917, d New York City 1990. His teachers included Josef and Rosina Lhévinne at the Juilliard School. With the US pianist Robert Fizdale he formed a two-piano team which toured the USA, Canada, and Europe. Gold and Fizdale premiered material for prepared piano by John Cage and had works composed for them by Auric, Barber, Milhaud, Poulenc, and Virgil Thomson.

Zadel Skolovsky, b Vancouver 1921. With his Russian-born parents he moved to the USA in 1923. His piano teachers were Isabelle Vengerova at the Curtis Institute and Leopold Godowsky. A Naumburg Award winner (1939), he has performed with the major orchestras of Canada and the USA and has toured Europe. He premiered Milhaud's Concerto No. 4 (dedicated to him) in 1950 with the Boston SO under Charles Munch. He has recorded for Philips and Columbia. In 1975 he began teaching at the University of Indiana.

Marion (Phyllis) Barnum, b Vancouver 12 May 1926 She studied at the Juilliard School and the University of Iowa (DMA 1971), has taught at Iowa State U, and has given recitals in canada, the USA, Europe, and the USSR (see EMC 1981).

Raymond Dudley, b 1931

Mari-Elizabeth Morgen, b 1944

Paul Shaffer, b 1949

Timothy Gaylard, b Ottawa 21 Nov 1954, ARCT 1971, BA (Carleton) 1975, B MUS (Carleton) 1976, PH D 1987 (Columbia). He also studied at the Mozarteum in Salzburg in 1974. Also active as a musicologist, he began teaching at Washington and Lee U, Lexington, Va in 1984.

Strings

(violin unless otherwise stated)

Oscar Martel, b 1848

François Boucher, b 1860. (See Boucher family.)

Alfred De Sève, b 1860

Chambord (Joseph Emile) Giguère, b Woonsocket, RI, 1877, d after 1957. The son of French-Canadian musicians who moved to the USA ca 1874, he studied in Montreal with Émile Daudelin, Frantz Jehin-Prume, and Oscar Martel and in Brussels with César Thomson and Eugène Ysaÿe. In addition to teaching briefly in England and playing in Belgian orchestras during the early years of the 20th century, he taught in New England for more than 50 years and appeared in concerts in New England and Canada.

Kathleen Parlow, b 1890 (in the USA 1926-40)

Ernest Gill Plamondon, b 1896. (See Plamondon family.)

Louis Gesensway, b Dvinsk, Latvia, 1906, d Philadelphia 1976. He toured Canada 1916-18 as a prodigy. His parents came to North America in 1913, settling in Toronto in 1917, where he took lessons with Luigi von Kunits. He studied later at the Curtis Institute and in Budapest with Kodály. He played 1923-6 in the New SO (TSO) and 1926-71 in the Philadelphia Orchestra. He composed chamber and orchestral works and devised a scheme of 'colour harmony.'

Albert Pratz, b 1914 (in the USA 1943-53)

William Waterhouse, b 1917. (See John Waterhouse.)

Suzette Forgues, cellist, b Montreal ca 1920. She studied in Montreal with Gustave Labelle and J.-B. Dubois and appeared as soloist with the CSM (MSO) in 1937. She won the Prix d'Europe in 1940 and studied in New York with Emmanuel Feuermann. She became principal cello of the New York City Center in 1947.

Lorne Munroe, b 1923 (cello). (See Munroe family.)

Shirley Trepel, cellist, b Winnipeg 1 Mar 1924. She studied with Saidenberg, Feuermann, and Piatigorsky, and made her New York debut in 1949. She became principal cello in the Houston SO in 1963, and began teaching at Rice U (Houston) in 1975, continuing in 1991.

Klemi Hambourg, b 1928. (See Hambourg family.)

Lea Foli, b 1933

Pierre Ménard, b Quebec City ca 1940, d Warren, Maine, 3 August 1994. He studied with Calvin Sieb at the CMQ. He won the Prix d'Europe in 1961 and later moved to the USA, where he became second violin of the Vermeer Quartet, which has toured in the USA and Canada.

Martin Foster, b Rochdale, England, ca 1950. He emigrated to Canada in 1956 and later studied at McGill University and the CMM, completing his premier prix in violin at the latter in 1970. His teachers have included Taras Gabora in Montreal and Dorothy Delay at the Juilliard School. He has played in the JM World Orchestra and the Aspen Chamber Symphony and was a founding member of the Gagliano String Quartet in 1971 and the American String Quartet in 1974. He returned to Canada in 1980 and in 1981 became concertmaster of the Chamber Players of Toronto.

Martin Chalifour, b Montreal 1961. He studied at the CMM and the Curtis Institute, was associate concertmaster of the Atlanta SO 1985-90, and assumed the same position with the Cleveland Orchestra in 1990.

Emmanuelle Boisvert, b Amos, Que, 1963. She studied at the CMM, graduated from the Curtis Institute in 1984, and was appointed concertmaster of the Detroit SO in 1988.

Other Instruments

E.N. L'Africain (trumpet 1887-1902 with the Boston SO)

Alexandre Laurendeau, b 1870 (oboe; in the USA 1900-20)

Percival Price, b 1901 (carillon)

Gloria Agostini, b 1923 (harp). (See Agostini family.)

Claude Hill, b 1934, d New York City 1987 (a harpist with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra from 1962 until his death)

John W. Johnson, cornetist, teacher

Michèle Gingras, clarinetist, premier prix (CMM) 1981; founded Miami Wind Quintet, has taught at Miami U in Oxford, O, and has contributed articles to professional magazines.

Conductors

Bruce Carey, b 1877. (See Carey family.)

Rosario Bourdon, b 1885

Wilfrid Pelletier, b 1896

Reginald Stewart, b 1900

Daniel Saidenberg, conductor, cellist, b Winnipeg 1906. His family moved to the USA when he was an infant. He studied cello 1919-21 with André Hekking at the Paris Cons and 1925-30 at the Juilliard School. A member of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1926-30 and principal cello with the Chicago SO 1930-7, he was head of the cello department 1933-7 at the Chicago Musical College. He began guest conducting orchestras in the eastern USA in 1933, and in 1941 he formed the Saidenberg Little Symphony. He began conducting the Connecticut SO in 1946.

Albert Steinberg, b 1910

Brock McElheran, b 1918.

Gregory Millar, b Prince Albert, Sask, 1929. His mentors included Dalton Baker and Arthur Benjamin in Canada, Leonard Bernstein, Darius Milhaud, and Dimitri Mitropoulos in the USA. He has conducted many US orchestras, and was director of the National Opera of Mexico 1973-5. In Canada he served as conductor of the Regina Symphony Orchestra 1978-81 and has been guest conductor of CBC orchestras in Toronto and Vancouver. He has also performed as a tenor in recitals, opera, and as soloist in choral-orchestral works and may be heard as conductor on the Fantasy label recordings.

School music

Joseph (Bennett) Sharland, b Halifax, NS, ca 1837, d Boston 1909. Early in life he moved to Boston, and later he became the accompanist or conductor for a number of choral societies and for more than 25 years served as a teacher and supervisor of school music. He edited several school songbooks.

Philip Cady Hayden, b Brantford, Ont, 1854, d Keokuk, Ia, 1925. He studied at Oberlin Cons in Ohio, then served as school music supervisor 1888-1900 in Quincy, Ill, and 1892-? in Keokuk, Ia. In 1907 he helped organize the founding meeting of the Music Supervisors' (later Educators') National Conference (MENC). He conducted various choirs and wrote lyrics and music for children's songs. He founded the magazine School Music and edited it 1900-25.

Edwin (Ninyon Chaloner) Barnes, b Oromocto, near Fredericton, NB, 1877, d Landover Hills, Md, 1952. He studied in Canada, the USA, and England, earning a D MUS ED in 1924. He was named director of school music for Massachusetts in 1906 and for Rhode Island in 1914 and served 1922-47 as head of the music department of the District of Columbia Public Schools. He was executive director of the Stephen Foster Memorial Foundation and wrote books and brochures about US music.

Private or conservatory teaching

Kate Sara Chittenden, b Hamilton, Canada West (Ontario), 1856, d New York 1949. She was a teacher 1873-6 at Hellmuth College, London, Ont, and served 1879-ca 1906 as organist at Calvary Baptist Church in New York. She was head of the piano departments 1890-1914 at the Catharine Aitken School in Stamford, Conn, and 1899-1930 at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, NY, and dean 1892-1933 of New York's Metropolitan College of Music (reorganized in 1900 as part of the American Institute of Applied Music). In 1887 she founded the Synthetic Piano School, later part of the institute. Her pupils numbered more than 3000.

Katherine Burrowes, b Kingston, Ont, ca 1869, d ? 1939. She studied with J.C. Batchelder in Detroit and Karl Klindworth in Berlin and taught 1895-1903 at the Detroit Cons. In 1903 she founded the Burrowes Piano School in Detroit. A specialist in teaching methods for children, she composed studies and simple pieces and devised The Burrowes Course of Music Study for Beginners (1895) and The New Success Music-Method (1917).

Evelyn Ashton Fletcher, b 1872. (See Fletcher Music Method.)

Jeannette Durno, b 1876. (See Pianists above.)

Léopold Simoneau, b 1918

Pierrette Alarie, b 1921

University teaching and musicology

Hugh Clarke, b 1839 (all-round, theory). (See Clarke family.)

George Bornoff, b 1907 (string pedagogy)

Wilfred Conwell Bain, b Shawville, Que, 1908. At 10 he moved to the USA, where he studied at Houghton College (BA 1929), Westminster Choir College (B MUS 1931), and New York University (MA 1936, D ED 1938). The recipient of several honorary degrees, he was dean of music 1938-47 at North Texas State U and 1947-73 at Indiana U, where he established an opera department.

Michael Winesanker, b Toronto 1913. A pupil of George E. Boyce (piano) and Healey Willan (theory), he later studied musicology with Otto Kinkeldey at Cornell U. He received a B MUS (Toronto) in 1933, an MA (Michigan) in 1941, and a PH D (Cornell) in 1944. He taught piano and theory 1940-2 at the Hambourg Conservatory, 1945-6 at the University of Texas, and 1946-83 at Texas Christian U, where he was named professor emeritus in 1983.

Jack Diether, b Vancouver 1919, d New York 1987. He studied at the University of British Columbia, and settled in New York in 1955, where he worked for Schirmer's. He was a Mahler and Bruckner scholar, edited the Bruckner Society of America's journal Chord and Discord, and contributed articles to that and other publications.

Jaroslav Mráček, b Montreal 1928. He studied piano with Alberto Guerrero at the RCMT and completed his B MUS (Toronto) in 1951. He studied further in the USA completing an MA (Indiana) in 1962 and a PH D in musicology (Indiana) in 1965. He began teaching at San Diego State U in 1965. His special fields of scholarship have been 17th-century instrumental music and Czech renaissance music. He is the editor of Seventeenth Century Instrumental Dance Music (Sweden 1978) and the author of articles for EMC and the New Grove. In 1986 he organized a Canadian Music Festival and conference at San Diego State U.

H. Colin Slim, b Vancouver 1929. He studied with Harry and Frances Adaskin, Ida Halpern, and Irwin Hoffman at the University of British Columbia (BA 1951) and with Otto Gombosi, Arthur Merritt, Walter Piston, and John Milton Ward at Harvard (MA 1955, PH D 1959). A specialist in renaissance music, he taught 1958-65 at the University of Chicago and 1965-72 at the University of California at Irvine. He returned to the latter in 1974 as chairman of the Historical Musicology department. He is the author of Musica nova: Monuments of Renaissance Music (Chicago and London 1964) and the two-volume A Gift of Madrigals and Motets (Chicago and London 1972). He was president of the American Musicological Society in 1989.

(John) Warren Kirkendale, b Toronto 1932. He attended university in Canada (BA, Toronto 1955), Germany, and Austria (PH D, Vienna 1961), worked in 1963 as a reference librarian at the Library of Congress, Washington, and taught 1963-7 at the University of Southern California and subsequently at Duke U, North Carolina. A lecturer in Europe and North America, he has contributed articles to Acta Musicologica, the Journal of the American Musicological Society, and other publications.

Singers (opera and concert)

Emma Albani, soprano, b 1847 (lived in the USA 1852-6 and 1864-8)

Charles Hedmont, tenor, b Portland, Maine, 1857, d London 1940. He studied as a youth in Montreal and later in London and Leipzig. He made his debut in 1881 in Berlin as Tamino, and sang for seven seasons at the Leipzig Stadttheater. He appeared in Gewandhaus concerts under Nikisch. He toured North America several times and sang the title role in Lohengrin with the Emma Juch company in Toronto in 1890 and Vancouver in 1891. In 1914 he sang Wagner roles in Montreal with the Quinlan Opera.

(William Thomas) Whitney Mockridge, tenor, b Port Stanley, Canada West (Ont), 1861, d Capetown 1956. He studied with F.H. Torrington and made his debut with the Toronto Philharmonic Society in 1879. He was soloist with various US organizations and a member of the Carl Rosa Opera Company 1882-4 and the American Opera Company in 1886. He settled in England in 1893, but returned occasionally to the USA to teach.

Albert Quesnel, tenor, b Montreal ? ca 1870. He sang in St Paul, Minn, in Chicago, and in St Louis and settled in New York, where he made his Metropolitan Opera debut, 20 Feb 1901, as Zorn in Die Meistersinger. He sang there again during the 1905-6, 1907-8, 1913-14, and 1915-16 seasons. While he appeared in many US cities, he seldom was heard in Canada. He recorded six Edison Blue Amberol Cylinders (see Roll Back the Years).

Edward Johnson, b 1878

Francis Archambault, bass, b L'Assomption, Que, 1879, d Montreal 1914. He studied with Frank Dossert in New York and with Jacques Bouhy in Paris. In 1904 he toured North America as Amfortas in a concert version of Parsifal presented by Walter Damrosch and the New York SO. He sang in concerts in Paris and London ca 1906 and was a member 1909-10 of Henry Russell's Boston Opera. He made test records 1909-10 for American Columbia.

Kathleen Howard, b 1880

Forrest Lamont, tenor, b Athlone, Adjala Township, Ont, 1881, d Chicago 1937. He grew up in Massachusetts, studied in Italy, and made his debut in Rome in 1914. A principal tenor 1917-30 with the Chicago Opera, he taught, and in 1919-20 made 10 recordings for Okeh.

Elizabeth Campbell (b Findlay), mezzo-soprano, b Toronto 1883, d Toronto 1969. After church and concert appearances in Toronto she sang with the Century Opera (New York) 1914-15, Max Rabinoff's Boston Opera 1915-16, the San Carlo Opera 1916-17 (as Maddalena Carreno), the Aborn English Grand Opera 1917-18, and the Society of American Singers 1918-19. She lived and taught in Paris from 1920 until the late 1950s.

Joseph Royer, baritone, b Quebec City 1884, d Phoenix, Ariz, 1965. He moved to New Hampshire as a child. After 1916 he often sang with the San Carlo Opera Company. He toured with light opera companies in South America and South Africa during the 1920s and made his Metropolitan Opera debut 16 May 1936 as Escamillo in Carmen. He sang with companies in Chicago, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, and St Louis.

Éviola Gauthier, b 1885

Irene Pavloska, b 1889

Arthur Michaud, tenor, b Northampton, Mass 1892, to Canadian parents, d Hollywood, Cal 1942; he studied in Monteal and Europe and moved to New York in 1923 and to Hollywood in 1936.

Jeanne Gordon, b 1893

Josef Shlisky, b Ostrowce, Poland, 1896, d New York City 1955, a concert singer and Jewish cantor trained in Toronto. A list of his recordings is given in Roll Back the Years.

Mary Bothwell, b 1900

James Eby, bass, b Saskatoon 1911. He was heard first over CRBC radio in 1933. In 1946 he left Canada to study in New York. He has toured with opera companies in Canada and the USA and has recorded with the Early Music Foundation of New York. He made his home in Wallkillm, NY.

Mary Henderson, b 1912

Jack Barkin, b 1914. (See Barkin family.)

Jean Dickenson, soprano, b Montreal 1914, to US parents. She was raised in India, South Africa, and the USA. She was a pupil of Florence Hinman in Denver. She became a regular performer 1937-50 on NBC radio programs and was a favourite of radio audiences in Canada. She appeared with the Denver and Milwaukee SOs, the Promenade Symphony Concerts, and the Little Symphony of Montreal, performed in productions of the Denver and San Carlo opera companies, and made her Metropolitan Opera debut 26 Jan 1940 as Philine in Mignon.

Norman Farrow, bass-baritone, b Regina 1916, d Greensboro, NC, 1984. After vocal studies 1938-40 at the Juilliard School, he made his debut in New York in 1940, and in 1946 helped to organize the New York-based Bach Aria Group. He sang with the group on many North American tours and on recordings. He has appeared as soloist with both US and Canadian orchestras. He was head of the voice dept 1969-81 at the University of North Carolina.

Mona Paulee, mezzo-soprano, b Edmonton 1916. Raised in Portland, Ore, she won the 'Metropolitan Opera Auditions of the Air' in March 1941. She appeared with that company 1941-6, toured Central America and Europe during the early 1950s, and appeared on Broadway in The Most Happy Fella in 1956. She later taught in California.

Emilia Cundari, soprano, b Detroit 1930. Raised in Windsor, Ont, she studied at Marygrove College in Detroit (B MUS, BA 1953) and with Edith Piper at the Juilliard School. During the mid-1950s she sang with the Detroit, Toronto, and Windsor SOs and appeared 1953-5 with the New York City Opera. She was an apprentice 1956-9 with the Metropolitan Opera. In 1959 she moved to Italy, where she participated in 1959, 1960, and 1961 in the Sacred Music Festival in Perugia and sang with the Rome Opera and the Teatro Sociale in Como. She also sang on European radio and appeared at various festivals. She returned to North America in the 1960s and in the 1970s was a voice teacher at Marygrove College. She has recorded for Columbia, Harmonia-Mundi, Victor, and Music Guild.

Salli Terri (b Stella Tirri), singer and folklorist, b London, Ont, ca 1935. she moved to Detroit as a child and studied music at Wayne State U. She also studied at the University of Southern California and the University of California at Los Angeles. An arranger and soloist for many years with the Los Angeles-based Roger Wagner Chorale, she has made several recordings for Capitol (reissued by Angel) and has toured with the John Biggs Consort, an ensemble directed by her husband. In 1976 she began to teach at Fullerton Community College, Fullerton, Cal.

Teresa Stratas, b 1938

Musical theatre

George Primrose, minstrel, b London, Canada West (Ontario), ca 1853, d San Diego, Cal, 1919. He began his career in the early 1860s, toured with the Haverly troupe and the Barlow, Wilson, Primrose and West Company, and worked with Lew Dockstader. He is said to have originated soft-shoe dancing.

Eugene (Chase) Cowles, bass, b Stanstead, Canada East (Quebec), 1860, d Boston 1948. He grew up in Vermont. A specialist in comic opera, he sang the role of Will Scarlett in the premiere (1890) of Reginald de Koven's Robin Hood. With the Alice Nielsen Opera Company he took leading roles in the premieres of Victor Herbert's The Fortune Teller (Toronto 1898) and The Singing Girl (Montreal 1899). He later appeared in vaudeville and in Broadway productions of several Gilbert & Sullivan operettas. He composed approximately 40 songs, recorded for Victor in 1906, and made an Edison Diamond Disc of his song 'Forgotten' (Ditson 1894) in 1921.

May Irwin (b Campbell), singer, b Whitby, Canada West (Ontario), 1862, d New York 1938. With her sister Flo she appeared 1877-83 at Tony Pastor's Theater in New York. She went to London and appeared with Augustin Daly's stock company. In 1895, in The Widow Jones, she had her first leading role. Later known as 'the peeress of stage widows,' she recorded a few ragtime songs for Victor in 1907.

Marie Dressler (b Koerber), singer, actress, b Cobourg, Ont, 1868, d Santa Barbara, Cal, 1934. Her first success was in The Lady Slavey, in 1896. Following vaudeville appearances in Great Britain and the USA she had a second stage success, in Tillie's Nightmare (1910). Besides recording ragtime songs for Edison in 1910 she appeared in silent films under the Canadian director Mack Sennett and made 24 talking films 1930-4, winning the Academy Award for best actress of 1930.

Harry Macdonough, b 1871

Christie MacDonald, soprano, b Pictou, NS, 1875, d Greenwich, Conn, 1962. She grew up in Boston. Her first starring role (1910) was that of Princess Bozena in Reinhardt's operetta The Spring Maid. In 1913 Victor Herbert wrote his Sweethearts for her. She recorded songs from these two works for Victor in 1911 and 1913. Her last stage appearance was in a 1920 revival of Floradora.

Donald Brian, singer, actor, b St John's, Nfld, 1875, d Great Neck, Long Island, NY, 1948. At six he moved to Boston. He made his first New York appearance in 1899 and became a matinee idol. His greatest success was as Prince Danilo in the original US production of Lehár's The Merry Widow (New Amsterdam Theater, New York, 1907).

George MacFarlane, baritone, actor, b Kingston, Ont, 1877, d Hollywood 1932. In 1909 on Broadway he sang a lead in de Koven's The Beauty Spot. Roles followed in other musicals and in operettas such as Jerome Kern's Miss Caprice (1913), The Midnight Girl (1914), and Trilby (1915). He recorded for Victor and Columbia.

Eva Tanguay, singer, dancer, actress, b Marbleton, Que, 1878, d Hollywood 1947. She acted in variety shows and musicals throughout the USA and reached 'star' status in 1902 with The Chaperones, which featured her first song hit, 'My Sambo.' By 1912 she was said to be the highest-paid actress in North America. In 1916 she starred in the motion picture Wild Girl. She gained great success with her version of the song 'I Don't Care,' recorded for Nordskog in 1922.

(Robert) Craig Campbell, tenor, b London, Ont, 1878, d New York 1965. In New York he was a pupil of Isidore Luckstone and a soloist for six years at the Church of the Transfiguration. He made his stage debut in 1909 as Alfred Blake in Edmund Eysler's The Love Cure at the New Amsterdam Theater. In 1912 he sang Jack Travers in the premiere of Friml's The Firefly. He appeared for several years on Broadway and in vaudeville. He was a member 1917-20 of the Society of American Singers and a soloist 1942-54 at St John's Episcopal Church in Jersey City, NJ. He recorded for Columbia, Davega, Pathé, and Perfect.

Walter Huston, singer, actor, b Toronto 1884, d Beverly Hills, Cal1950; brother of Margaret Huston. A vaudeville performer for 20 years before becoming a celebrated stage and film actor, he is remembered for his performance of 'September Song' in Kurt Weill's Knickerbocker Holiday.

Henry Burr, b 1885

Estelle Carey, b 1890. (See Carey family.)

Walter Pidgeon, baritone, actor, b East Saint John, NB, 1898, d Santa Monica, Cal 1984. He sang with the E.E. Clive Repertory Company in England and appeared on Broadway in Puzzles of 1925 before moving to Hollywood and becoming known primarily as a film actor. He recorded for HMV in England ca 1924.

Douglas Stanbury, baritone, b Toronto 1899, d Huntington NY, 6 Dec 1980. As a youth he toured in Canada and New York State with Arthur Pryor's Band and studied 1915-20 with Otto Morando in Toronto. In 1922 he became principal baritone soloist at the Capitol Theater in New York. During the 1920s he sang with the Chicago Civic and San Carlo operas and continued to appear on Broadway. In the early 1930s he was heard regularly on radio and in 1934 he sang in several opera broadcasts sponsored by Chase and Sanborn and conducted by Wilfrid Pelletier. A transcription of one of these (Aida) was released in 1976 by the Unique Opera Record Corp. Stanbury appeared 1926-34 in five Vitaphone film shorts and recorded for Edison, Victor, Cameo, Silvertone, and Oriole.

Ruby Keeler, dancer, singer, b Halifax, NS, 1909 She moved with her family to New York, where she eventually joined the Ziegfeld Follies. In the 1930s she went to Hollywood and starred in a number of Busby Berkeley musical films, including 42nd Street. She retired from show business in 1941 and made a brief comeback in a Broadway revival of No, No, Nanette in 1970.

Kaye Connor, lyric soprano, b Vancouver ca 1925. At five she was heard on radio as 'Vancouver's Baby Kaye.' She played children's parts in Hollywood films during the 1930s and later appeared on stage in productions of Victor Herbert's Romany Love in Hollywood, New York, and London.

Dorothy Collins (b Marjorie? Chandler), b Windsor, Ont, 18 Nov 1926, d New York 21 July 1994. She sang on WJKB radio in Detroit and was discovered in 1942 by the bandleader Raymond Scott. She was heard 1950-9 on NBC TV's 'Your Hit Parade' and appeared in musicals and straw hat productions on Broadway and elsewhere. Her recordings included 'My Boy Flat Top' and 'Seven Days' (both 1956), and the 1957 hit 'Four Walls.'

Gisèle MacKenzie, b 1927

Milton Jiricka, tenor, b Saskatoon 1930. He studied at the RCMT and in Italy. After singing in the early 1950s for CBC radio programs, he moved to New York, where he appeared in musicals at Radio City Music Hall and on Broadway. He was seen on the US TV shows of Lawrence Welk and Tennessee Ernie Ford.

Gale Sherwood, soprano, actress, b Hamilton, Ont, 1930. She began singing on Toronto radio stations at three, went to Hollywood ca 1938, and appeared in her first movie in 1939. Following several movie musicals, made during the 1940s, she began to appear in stage operettas and on TV specials. She achieved her greatest recognition performing in nightclubs in Canada and the USA with the baritone Nelson Eddy. She retired in the late 1960s.

Robert Goulet, b 1933

Len (Leonard) Cariou, actor, director, singer, b St Boniface, Man, 1939. He sang in the chorus at Rainbow Stage, acted at the Stratford Festival, and starred in the Broadway musical Applause (1970) and in the stage and film productions of Sondheim's A Little Night Music. He appeared in the title role of another Sondheim musical, the successful Sweeney Todd. For the three musicals he received best actor nominations for Broadway's 'Tony' Awards, winning for Sweeney Todd.

Judy Lander, singer, b Winnipeg ca 1948. She began singing in 1964 and studied in the late 1960s with Portia White and Rosemary Burns. She appeared 1968-9 in a Toronto production of Jacques Brel Is Alive and Well and Living in Paris and in 1969 in Spring Thaw. In 1973 she performed in the Broadway production of From Berlin to Broadway with Kurt Weill and toured the USA in the Jacques Brel show.

Singing evangelists

Aimee Semple McPherson (b Kennedy), b Ingersoll, Ont, 1890, d Oakland, Cal, 1944. After missionary work in India and China she moved to the USA and settled in Los Angeles. Her Angelus Temple Church of the Foursquare Gospel included a radio station for on-air preaching. She recorded songs and sermonettes for Columbia in 1926 and 1931.

George Beverly Shea, b 1909

Hollywood singers

Deanna (b Edna Mae) Durbin, b Winnipeg 1922. She moved to California at the age of one. In the 1930s and 1940s she appeared in several films, the first of which was Three Smart Girls. She was heard regularly on Eddie Cantor's CBS radio show.

Bobby Breen (b Jackie Boreen), b Toronto 1927. He sang in Jack Arthur's Toronto revues and at nine was heard on Eddie Cantor's radio show. He appeared in several Hollywood films before 1942. During the 1940s and 1950s he toured and performed in nightclubs. In 1987 he lived in Matgate, Fla. He recorded for Bluebird, Decca, and other labels.

See also Dressler, Sherwood, and Tanguay under 'Musical theatre' above.

Others in pop music

Rosario Bourdon, b 1885

John Murray Anderson, lyricist and director, b St John's, Nfld, 1886, d New York 1954. He was lyricist and director 1919-24 of the Greenwich Village Follies, which rivalled the Ziegfeld Follies. He directed the movie King of Jazz (1930) and was the music director 1938-50 for Billy Rose's Diamond Horseshoe and 1942-51 for the Ringling Bros Circus.

Percy Faith, b 1908

Lucille Starr, b 1938

Concert management and administration

Bernard R. Laberge, b 1891

Terry McEwen, b Thunder Bay, Ont, 1929. He worked at the International Music Store in Montreal, joined Decca records in London in 1950, and in 1959 moved to New York where he was artistic director of the classical section of London Records and a regular intermission panelist for the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts. In 1979 he was appointed successor to Kurt Adler (effective 1982) as general director of the San Francisco Opera. He resigned in 1988.

Pop songwriters

Shelton Brooks, b 1886. (See 'Darktown Strutters' Ball.')

Carmen Lombardo, b 1903

Will Osborne (b Oliphant), singer and songwriter, b Toronto 1906. He left Canada ca 1925. Among his songs were 'Beside an Open Fireplace,' 'The Hills of Old Virginia,' 'Mumble Jumble,' and 'Pompton Turnpike.'

Robert Nolan, b 1908. (See 'Tumbling Tumble weeds.')

Lyrics

George V. Hobard, b Port Hawkesbury NS, 1867, d Cumberland, Md, 1926. He left Canada at the age of 17 and enjoyed success 1900-22 as lyricist and librettist of more than 40 Broadway musicals, including many Ziegfeld Follies 1911-20.

James O'Dea, b Hamilton, Ont, 1871, d Long Island, NY, 1914. He grew up in London, Ont, and moved to New York, where he began to write songs. As a lyricist he collaborated with his wife, Anna Caldwell, on 'The Ghost of the Banjo Coon' (ca 1902), 'The Sweetest Girl in Dixie' (1904), and Ivan Caryll's fantasy Chin-Chin; with Neil Moret on 'Hiawatha' (Whitney-Warner 1903); with Jerome Kern on 'The Subway Express' for Fascinating Flora (1907); and with Victor Herbert on Lady of the Slipper.

J. M. Anderson, b 1886. (See 'Others in pop music' above.)

George White (b George Weitz), b Toronto 1890, d Hollywood 1968. A dancer in his youth, working with Luigi Romanelli in Toronto and later in a team with Bernie Ryan in vaudeville and on Broadway, he wrote and produced the George White Scandals (1919-32, 1936, and 1939), Broadway revues which rivalled the Ziegfeld Follies.

Jazz

See Jazz: 8/Canadians in the USA and Europe.

Country

Wilf Carter, b 1904

Hank Snow, b 1914

See also Country music: Canadian characteristics; Guitar.

Pop and dance, general

(includes rock, dance bands)

Guy Lombardo, b 1902

Paul Anka, b 1941

David Clayton-Thomas, b 1941

Joni Mitchell, b 1943

Neil Young, b 1945

Gino Vannelli, b 1952

The Diamonds, fl 1952-64

The Crew-Cuts, fl 1954-70s

In the latter half of the 20th century, with the expansion of the recording industry and constant improvements in transportation and communications, it became possible for many Canadian-born pop performers (eg, Anne Murray, Joni Mitchell, Gino Vannelli, Neil Young) to live in either Canada or the USA while enjoying successful careers in both countries.