Parti rouge, also known as Parti démocratique, was established about 1848 by a group of radical young francophone intellectuals who had helped found the INSTITUT CANADIEN and who were inspired by the republican ideas of Louis-Joseph PAPINEAU. Members included the Dorion brothers, Louis-Victor SICOTTE, Joseph Papin and Joseph DOUTRE. In the legislature and through L'Avenir and Le Pays, the rouges advocated repeal of the ACT OF UNION, annexation of Canada to the US, extension of the elective principle of government to all offices, abolition of the SEIGNEURIAL SYSTEM and universal suffrage. Although their extremism moderated over time, they remained staunchly anticlerical and opposed to the ULTRAMONTANE doctrines of Mgr BOURGET, thereby ensuring the animosity of the church and limited popular support. After Confederation the Parti rouge merged with the CLEAR GRITS of Canada West to form the basis of the LIBERAL PARTY.