Nanticoke, Ont, was a city located on the north shore of Lake Erie, 58 km southwest of Hamilton. It was incorporated as a city in 1974 from the towns of Waterford, PORT DOVER and the townships of Townsend and Woodhouse in Norfolk County, and from the village of Jarvis and parts of Walpole and Rainham townships in Haldimand County. The city was part of the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk until January 2001, when it was split between 2 new municipalities, HALDIMAND COUNTY and NORFOLK COUNTY. The name, which is an Aboriginal word meaning "crooked" or "winding," is derived from a local creek, and survives in the small hamlet of Nanticoke.

While primarily an agricultural area, Nanticoke was also the location of several heavy industries, including a steel mill, an oil refinery and a coal-fired generating station owned by Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), now situated in Haldimand County.