Jeanne Mance, co-founder of Montréal, founder and director of the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal (baptised 12 November 1606 in Langres, France; died 18 June 1673 in Montréal, QC).
Medic and Missionary
Daughter of an attorney at Langres in the Champagne province, Jeanne Mance is thought to have developed nursing skills working with charitable local societies during the Thirty Years War (1618–1648). A famous portrait portrays her as a beautiful young woman with doe-like eyes and flowing hair. She was not drawn to marriage, preferring to emulate the laywomen and Ursuline nuns who had founded a school and hospital at Québec in 1639; she was also inspired by a cousin who was a missionary priest. Clergymen helped secure introductions to devout circles at the French court. She also met Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve and other members of the Society of Notre-Dame of Montréal, which had acquired Montréal Island with a view to turning it into a missionary hub for converting Aboriginal people to Catholicism. Their plan was to push westward past the existing settlement at Québec and set up a wilderness mission astride the trade routes of the powerful Haudenosaunee (Iroquois).
Fundraiser and Organizer
An eloquent speaker, Mance inspired confidence in potential donors and colonists. A late addition to the Society as it was preparing to sail from
The Mission at Montréal Island
In May 1642, Mance and her companions embarked on Montréal Island, where they pitched tents and began living in the woods. Fifty-five of them (including 10 women) remained on the
Founder and Defender
Contemporaries acknowledged Mance’s vital role in this early chapter of Canadian history (although later accounts have not always recognized her importance). Seventeenth-century historian Dollier de Casson described Mademoiselle Mance and Governor de Maisonneuve as co-founders of Montréal. Mance was the colony’s official treasurer, director of supplies, and hospital director. She took it upon herself to sail back across the Atlantic in 1649, where she revived waning French support for the settlement. Most importantly, it was Mance’s idea to use her hospital’s endowment to recruit more men to protect the town. When the outlying Jesuit mission of Sainte-Marie-among-the-Hurons collapsed in 1649, Montréal became the front line in the Franco-Iroquois conflict. After more than a third of the colonists had been slain, fear drove the survivors to abandon their houses and live in the fort. By mid-1651, there were only 17 militiamen left to face 200 Haudenosaunee warriors. “Everyone was reduced to extremities,” Mance wrote. “One spoke of nothing but leaving the country.” She persuaded Governor Maisonneuve to visit her benefactor in
As the little settlement grew, its hospital flourished. In 1659, Mance made a trip to France and recruited three Hospital Sisters of Saint-Joseph to help at the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, which she had founded. It soon grew to three stories and became a much-loved institution. Today, the original wooden palisades are long gone, but patients still arrive in search of timely medical care. A massive metal statue of Jeanne Mance stands guard outside the Hotel-Dieu, testimony to the founder of Montréal’s first hospital and — even more strikingly — to a woman rare in the annals of nations, who co-founded one of our great cities.
Marie-Claire Daveluy, Jeanne Mance 1606–1673 (1962); Francoise Deroy-Pineau, Jeanne Mance: de Langres à Montréal, la passion de soigner (1995); Francois Dollier de Casson, Histoire de Montréal (1992); Soeur Maria Mondoux, L’Hôtel-Dieu, premier hospital de Montréal, après les annales manuscrites, les documents originaux…et autres sources 1642–1763 (1942); Marie Morin, Histoire simple et véritable: annales de l’Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, ed. G. Legendre (1979); Jan Noel, Along a River: The First French-Canadian Women (2013).