James Wolfe, British army officer, commander of the British expedition that took Québec in 1759 (born 2 January 1727/28 in Westerham, England; died 13 September 1759 at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham).
James Wolfe, British army officer, commander of the British expedition that took Québec in 1759 (born 2 January 1727/28 in Westerham, England; died 13 September 1759 at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham). One of the legendary figures of Canadian history, Wolfe has become known as the man whose defeat of the Marquis de Montcalm in 1759 marked the beginning of British rule in Canada.
Seven Years War
James Wolfe saw fighting in both Flanders and Scotland, and gained a notable reputation before going to North America in 1758 as a senior officer in Jeffrey Amherst 's expedition against Louisbourg. During the siege, Wolfe, a charismatic figure, played a distinguished and active role, which influenced his selection as commander of the expedition against Québec planned for 1759.
Québec Expedition 1759
For most of the 1759 campaign Wolfe made little headway, partially because of his vacillation and limited ideas. Wolfe's assault on the strong Montmorency position of July 31 was a bloody failure, and neither the bombardment of Québec nor the destruction of neighbouring settlements had any real effect. He was ravaged by illness, and his relations with three senior officers, Robert Monckton, George Townshend and James Murray, and with the navy were marked by sharp disagreements. But when in August his subordinates proposed landing above Québec he began to plan an amphibious landing that would cut the enemy's supply lines and force a battle.
St Lawrence River and a series of fortunate strokes saw his force established on the Plains of Abraham on 13 September 1759. Montcalm's forces attacked, but the better-trained British force routed the French in a short action. Wolfe himself was mortally wounded but lived long enough to hear of his victory.
See also Seven Years' War.
Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (2000); Stephen Brumwell, Paths of Glory: The Life and Death of General James Wolfe (2006); D. Peter MacLeod, Northern Armageddon: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (2008); C.P. Stacey and Donald E. Graves, Quebec, 1759: The Siege and the Battle (2002).