Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Blackwood, 1st Marquess of

 Frederick Temple Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, governor general of Canada 1872-78, viceroy of India 1884-88 (b at Florence, Italy 21 June 1826; d at Clandeboye, Ire 12 Feb 1902). Frederick Temple Blackwood was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, but did not graduate. He served as lord-in-waiting to Queen Victoria 1849-52 and again 1854-58. Dufferin sat in the Lords as a Liberal and in 1868 entered Gladstone's ministry as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. He came to Canada in 1872 as governor general.

Although initially he possessed an exalted view of his powers, this polished, articulate diplomat displayed great tact and judgement during the PACIFIC SCANDAL that forced John A. MACDONALD to resign and brought Alexander MACKENZIE in as prime minister. Dufferin's attempts to reconcile British Columbia to CONFEDERATION annoyed the Mackenzie government. He supported the Supreme Court of Canada Bill, however, and his amnesty to those in the RED RIVER REBELLION saved the government considerable embarrassment.

The first governor general to make the QUÉBEC CITADEL a vice-regal residence, Dufferin persuaded the city fathers to save the old French walls from destruction: Dufferin Terrace was named in his honour. After leaving Canada Dufferin was British ambassador to Russia, Turkey, Italy and France.