Chris Austin Hadfield, Canadian astronaut, military test pilot (born 29 August 1959 in Sarnia, ON). After a distinguished career as a test pilot, Hadfield became an astronaut in 1992. Over the course of his career, Hadfield laid claim to a series of Canadian firsts: he was the first Canadian to be a space mission specialist, to operate the Canadarm in orbit, to do a spacewalk and to command the International Space Station.
Education and Early Career
Hadfield graduated from Milton District High School in 1977. He had flight in his blood from an early age; his father, Roger, was a pilot with Air Canada and also flew his own aerobatic plane. Hadfield and his brothers, David and Philip, were air cadets; and his brothers went on to become airline pilots. Hadfield opted for the military, graduating in 1982 from the Royal Military College in Kingston, ON with a degree in mechanical engineering. He received an MSc in aviation systems from the University of Tennessee in 1992.
Hadfield's distinguished career as a pilot began with three years flying CF-18s with the Canadian Forces in Québec. In 1985, he was the first CF-18 pilot to intercept a Soviet "Bear" aircraft in Canadian airspace. Next, he attended the US Air Force's test pilot ("top gun") school in California, where he was honoured as the best graduate of 1988. He then became a Canadian exchange officer at the US Naval Air Test Center in Patuxent River, Maryland — a famous breeding ground for US astronauts. In 1991, he received the US Navy's test pilot of the year award for his highly risky work pushing high-performance aircraft out of control and finding ways to recover them.
Astronaut Career Highlights
In June 1992, Hadfield was selected, along with three others, from among 5,330 applicants for the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) astronaut program. He and fellow Canadian Marc Garneau were assigned to NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, to train as mission specialists — astronauts who operate shuttle systems, including the Canadarm — and perform spacewalks. Hadfield was the first Canadian in the launch support team at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. He also participated in redesigning and modernizing the cockpit displays for the shuttle's flight deck instruments and was the CSA’s chief astronaut from 1996 to 2000.
In November 1995, Hadfield flew on STS-74 as Mission Specialist 1 on the shuttle Atlantis and was the primary Canadarm operator. The eight-day mission, the second of seven planned dockings between the shuttle and the Russian space station Mir, was one of the shuttle program's most technically complex missions. Hadfield used the Canadarm to install a 4,100 kg Russian-built docking module between the shuttle and Mir, creating a tunnel that allowed the Atlantis crew to visit the Russian space station. Hadfield was the first Canadian mission specialist, the first Canadian to operate the Canadarm in orbit and the only Canadian to board Mir.
After his flight, Hadfield was assigned as "CAPCOM" (Capsule Communicator in Mission Control) for Mission STS-77, on which Marc Garneau flew as a mission specialist in May 1996. Hadfield was NASA's Chief CAPCOM for 25 shuttle missions.
In April 2001 Hadfield was Mission Specialist 1 on STS-100 International Space Station (ISS) assembly Flight 6A. The crew of Space Shuttle Endeavour delivered and installed Canadarm2, the advanced version of the robotic arm designed for the ISS, and the Italian-made resupply module, Raffaello. During the 11-day flight, Hadfield performed two spacewalks, the first Canadian to do so.
Hadfield's next posting was to Star City, Russia, where, from 2001–03, he was the director of operations for NASA at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre (GCTC). His work included coordinating and directing all International Space Station crew activities in Russia, overseeing crew and support staff training, and negotiating policy with the Russian space program and international partners. He also became a flight engineer on the Soyuz spacecraft and qualified to use the Russian space suit during spacewalks.
International Space Station Operations
In 2003, having attained the rank of colonel, Hadfield resigned from the Royal Canadian Air Force after 25 years. He became a civilian CSA astronaut assigned to the Johnson Space Center from 2003 to 2008.
Between 2008 and 2009, Hadfield was the backup for Dr. Bob Thirsk for Expedition 20/21, training to live and work for up to six months on the International Space Station. After that assignment, he supported the ISS Operations Branch and developed emergency procedures for the space station.
NASA initiated the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) program in 2001, conducting missions at an underwater facility off the coast of Florida to test concepts of exploration and living in extreme environments. Hadfield commanded NEEMO 14, in May 2010, using the ocean floor to simulate exploration missions to asteroids, moons and Mars. These simulations teach astronauts to use equipment needed on such missions, including advanced spacesuits, landers, rovers and robotic arms.
In June 2010, Hadfield was part of the research team at Pavilion Lake, 420 km northeast of Vancouver. It is one of the few places on Earth where scientists can find microbialites, underwater structures believed to be formed by tiny aquatic creatures. This research, which focused on how microbialites form, was aimed at helping astronauts identify possible life forms on future Mars missions.
In September 2010, Hadfield was assigned to Expedition 34/35 on the International Space Station, becoming the second Canadian to participate in a long-duration ISS mission. He was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft on 19 December 2012. Hadfield became the first Canadian commander of the ISS on 13 March 2013.
During the mission, Hadfield conducted scientific experiments, operated the station’s Canadarm2 and co-ordinated an emergency spacewalk by fellow astronauts to repair an ammonia leak outside the spacecraft. Hadfield returned to Earth on 13 May 2013. After 146 days in space and 2,336 orbits of the Earth, he had racked up nearly 100 million kms of travel.
In July 2013, Hadfield retired as an active astronaut and later accepted a position teaching in the University of Waterloo’s aviation program, starting in the fall of 2014. His book, An Astronaut’s Guide to Life on Earth, was published in October 2013.
With the help of his son, Evan, Hadfield made unprecedented use of social media during his International Space Station mission. An accomplished musician and photographer, he transmitted songs and images from space, as well as educational videos. His excellent communications skills, outgoing personality and infectious enthusiasm made him an international celebrity who attracted followers from around the world on Twitter, Facebook and YouTube. When Star Trek Captain James T. Kirk (aka actor William Shatner) tweeted “are you tweeting from space?,” Hadfield responded: “Yes, Standard Orbit, Captain. And we're detecting signs of life on the surface.” Hadfield’s cover of David Bowie’s song, “Space Oddity,” was the first music video recorded in space and attracted millions of views on YouTube.