In Canada slaves generally worked as personal servants or on the wharves. A few settlers had many slaves, but more than 20 was considered unusual. This made the attack on slavery far simpler than it was in plantation economies, where their labour was more important. The most effective and sustained attack on slavery came in New Brunswick in 1800, when Ward CHIPMAN prepared an especially thorough legal, historical and moral statement against slavery. Generally, slavery was physically benign, and especially so in PEI, though there were recorded instances of harsh punishment and many advertisements for the return of runaway slaves. The UNDERGROUND RAILROAD assisted fugitive American slaves to reach Canada prior to the abolition of slavery in the US during the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. In Canada the last surviving former slave died in Cornwall, Ont, in 1871.
Author ROBIN W. WINKS
Links to Other Sites
The website for the Historica-Dominion Institute, parent organization of The Canadian Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Check out their extensive online feature about the War of 1812, the "Heritage Minutes" video collection, and many other interactive resources concerning Canadian history, culture, and heritage.
Buxton Settlement National Historic Site of Canada
See a description of heritage characteristics of the Buxton Settlement National Historic Site of Canada, a stop on the Ontario portion of the Underground Railroad. Search this site for other locations on this historic route to freedom for ex-slaves from the US. From Parks Canada.
Anti-Slavery Movement in Canada
A small online collection of historical documents about early Black settlements and the anti-slavery movement in Canada. Fom Library and Archives Canada.
Archives of Ontario: Black History
A selection of archival documents that relate to Black history in Ontario. An Archives of Ontario website.
Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History
Solve some the "Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History." Learn about investigative techniques and Canadian history. From the University of Victoria.
The Underground Railroad
Follow the flight to freedom along the Underground Railroad to Canada. This Canada’s Digital Collections web site focuses on St. Catharines and other locations in the Niagara Region. Also profiles noteworthy individuals such as Harriet Tubman. Wind your way through mazes and other fun games.
African Nova Scotians in the Age of Slavery and Abolition
Stories, documents and pictures provide compelling glimpses into the individual lives of early African Nova Scotians.
Ward Chipman Slavery Brief
A great information source about anti-slavery issues in Canada during the 19th century. Features the full court transcript of the “Chipman Brief” which was part of an 1800 New Brunswick anti-slavery case. Also offers biographies of Ward Chipman and others related to this case.
Black History Canada
An extensive Internet portal featuring links to online resources about the history and culture of the Black community in Canada. Topics include enslavement, early Black settlements, human rights, immigration, and prominent personalities and community leaders in business, government, religion, sports, the military, and the arts. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Shawnadithit grew anxious waiting for her uncle, Longnon, to return to camp at the junction of Badger Brook and the Exploits River, deep in the wilds of Newfoundland...