Egg farming in Manitoba. This video shows the different ways laying hens are raised in Manitoba. From Mbdozen.
Caring for Turkeys. A Canadian turkey farmer explains how he cares for his birds as they grow. From Ontario Farming.
The basic white egg producing breed is the White Leghorn, while brown eggs are produced by hybrids based on several breeds, most notably the Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock and New Hampshire. The commercial white egg layer is white feathered and weighs about 1.8 kg. Brown egg layers are coloured and weigh slightly more. Laying chickens produce 300 to 340 eggs during the 12 to 13 months they are in lay. They are expected to produce one dozen eggs for every 1.55 kg of feed. Broiler birds (for meat) are produced from crosses that originally involved White Plymouth Rock and/or New Hampshire for the mother side and Cornish for the father side.
The commercial broiler is white feathered, fast growing, vigorous and well fleshed. Chicken broilers are generally slaughtered when 35 days old, at a live weight of 2.1 kg. They require 1.8 kg of feed to produce 1 kg live weight. Currently, 2 international companies supply the large majority of the industrial market for both layer and broiler chickens.
The Broad Breasted Large White breed was developed in the early 1950s, through pedigree breeding and selection at Cornell University from crosses of Broad Breasted Bronze and White Holland. Private breeders soon began to develop other strains through crossbreeding. The Beltsville Small White variety was developed by the US Department of Agriculture at the Agricultural Research Centre in Beltsville, Maryland, between 1941 and 1962. This stock has been distributed throughout the world. It is smaller in size and is generally better in egg production, fertility and hatchability; it is usually less broody than larger-sized varieties. When marketed as broilers, these birds are usually slaughtered at 10 to 11 weeks of age. The same 2 companies referred to in the chicken segment also supply the large majority of global turkey stock.
Ducks and Geese
Purebreds and crosses are the sources of commercial stock. The White Pekin is the most popular meat duck; the Muscovy is also used to a limited extent, especially in crosses to the White Pekin. The 3 most popular breeds of geese are Embden, Chinese and Toulouse. Poultry farms may be classed as producers of eggs, chicken meat, turkey, waterfowl or game and exotic birds. Production of eggs, chicken meat and turkey is regulated federally (Agricultural Products Marketing Act) and provincially (AGRICULTURAL MARKETING BOARDS). Federal agencies allocate production quotas to the provinces, remove market surpluses and regulate import and export of products. Provincial boards allocate production quotas to producers, set prices, advertise the product and deduct board levies from producers for operating costs. The general strategy is to ensure that each province is self-sufficient. Waterfowl and the relatively new GAME BIRD and exotic bird production have little control and few statistics are available.
Author JOHN P. WALKER Revised: V. IACOBUCCI
Links to Other Sites
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Online
An extensive information source about Canada's thriving agricultural sector and related issues, studies, and government programs. From Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
Glossary: Veterinary Medicine
A glossary of terms related to veterinary medicine. From Washington State University's College of Veterinary Medicine.
Meat Cuts Manual
Your illustrated guide to well dressed beef, poultry and other animal products. From the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute
Check out this website for information and reports about current issues impacting on the productivity and competitiveness of Canada's agri-food sector.