Most are either "soft" pines with 5 needles per shoot or "hard" pines with 2-3 per shoot. The most familiar soft pines are western white pine (P. monticola) of BC, and eastern white pine (P. strobus), east of Manitoba. Others include limber pine (P. flexilis) and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis) of the western mountains. Hard pines include ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (P. contorta) in the West, jack pine (P. banksiana) in the BOREAL FOREST, red pine (P. resinosa) and pitch pine (P. rigida) in the East.
Eastern white pine provides a very valuable softwood. It was exported from NEW FRANCE as early as 1700, as well as being used in the colony for construction and shipbuilding. As a group, pines are still the most common Canadian conifers and yield lumber, pulp and paper.
Author JOHN N. OWENS
Links to Other Sites
The Plant List
Search this online database for information about one million plant species from around the world. Also, click on "major plant groups" at the bottom of the page to browse descriptions of species of interest. Fungi and algae are excluded. From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the UK and the Missouri Botanical Garden in the US.
The Ecological Framework of Canada
This site describes Canada's ecozones and the general concepts of ecological classification. Based on data developed by Environment Canada.
Flora of North America
The FNA website features information on the names, taxonomic relationships, continent-wide distributions, and morphological characteristics of all plants native and naturalized found in North America north of Mexico.
Ancient Forest Exploration & Research
This organization is dedicated to the scientific study of ancient forest ecosystems. Their extensive website offers well-illustrated reports on the status of old-growth forest regions in Ontario.
Barking up the wrong tree
A brief article about environmental hazards threatening stands of Whitebark Pine trees in Alberta. From the website "University of Alberta Research".