The park is comprised, in great part, of one of the region's more impressive natural features, Monts Chic-Chocs (part of the Appalachians). Renown for their aesthetic and panoramic qualities, these mountains are broken only by the Cap-Chat and Sainte-Anne river valleys. The Chic-Chocs have several summits that project well beyond 1000 m, of which mounts Logan (1135 m), Albert (1151 m) and Jacques-Cartier (1268 m) are the best known.
The overall richness of the vegetation is characterized by its altitudinal distribution ranging from maple stands with yellow birch, white spruce with balsam fir to the alpine tundra on the highest peaks. Some rare plants are also found in the park. This is the only area of Québec where caribou, moose and white-tailed deer are found. Brook trout (see CHAR) are found throughout the park.