Since 1870 the urbanized area has been steadily overflowing the limits of the city proper, despite numerous annexations of suburban municipalities. In 2001 the CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREA (pop 3 426 350) included 109 different municipalities; in 2002 numerous municipal amalgamations took place within the region, bringing that figure down to 66. In addition to Montréal (1 812 703), the largest cities are LONGUEUIL (371 934) on the South Shore, LAVAL (343 005) on Île Jésus, and TERREBONNE (80 531) and REPENTIGNY (72 218) on the North Shore.
|Montréal: Statistical Summary|
|Population (City):||1 620 693 (2006c); 1 583 590 A (2001c)|
|Population (CMA):||3 635 571 (2006c); 3 451 027 A (2001c)|
|Rate of Increase (City):||2.3% (2001-2006); 2.3% (1996-2001)*|
|Rate of Increase (CMA):||5.3% (2001-2006); 3.0% (1996-2001)*|
|Rank in Canada (by CMA in 2006):||Second|
|Year of Incorporation (City):||1832|
|Land Area:||(City) 365.13 km2; (CMA) 4258.97 km2|
|Elevation:||Mont Royal 233 m; PET International Airport 36 m|
|Average Daily Temperature July:||20.9ºC|
|Average Daily Temperature January:||-10.2ºC|
|Yearly Precipitation:||978.9 mm|
|Hours of Sunshine Per Year:||2028.6|
|*Based on 2001 boundaries|
While Québec City was the administrative capital and the main port where exchanges took place with France, Montréal was a city of the interior. It was soon to become the great centre of the FUR TRADE, from which the COUREURS DE BOIS, VOYAGEURS and such famous explorers as René-Robert LA SALLE, Daniel DULHUT, Pierre Le Moyne d'IBERVILLE and Pierre Gaultier de LA VÉRENDRYE set out. They established a network of trading posts to secure furs for Montréal and methodically explored the North American continent from the Gulf of Mexico to the Rockies. Relying upon the labour of native peoples, the fur trade did not provide much employment in Montréal itself. Strong dependence on this single activity and the weakness of the region's agriculture explain why population growth in Montréal was slow.
At the end of the 17th century the city had just over 1000 inhabitants, rising to approximately 5500 in 1789. In addition to the voyageurs and the coureurs de bois, religious institutions made their presence felt in the life of the community. Among these was the Order of Saint-Sulpice, which held Île de Montréal en seigneurie for close to 200 years from its seminary building, providing it with priests for the parish church. Built in 1685, the seminary building still stands today on the Place d'Armes.
After the British conquest (the city surrendered in 1760), Montréal's economy continued to depend mainly on the fur trade for several decades. Scottish merchants - Alexander MACKENZIE, the Frobisher brothers, Simon MCTAVISH, and Duncan, Simon and William McGillivray, to name only the best known - took the place of francophone merchants. The Scots combined their interests to create the NORTH WEST COMPANY to compete more effectively with the HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY for control of the fur trade of the Northwest.
Despite the disadvantage of distance, the Montréal-based firm prospered until it was assimilated by its rival in 1821. The fur trade had played an important role in establishing Montréal's hegemony over the interior. But from the end of the 18th century the city's growth depended increasingly on the settlement of the rural hinterland, both on the plain outside Montréal and in Upper Canada (Ontario). The large influx of emigrants from the British Isles, which began in 1815, accelerated the settlement process.
By the 1820s its population outnumbered that of Québec City and it had clearly asserted itself as the metropolis. In 1825 Montréal already had 22 540 inhabitants; there were 44 591 in 1844. A dynamic merchant class engaged in the import and export trade succeeded the fur-trade magnates. This group created the BANK OF MONTREAL in 1817 and the Committee of Trade in 1822, invested in maritime shipping and, in 1836, began to invest in railways.
Large-scale immigration enabled the residents of British origin to become the majority in the city around 1831. Conflict between French and ENGLISH and struggles for representative government marked the 1830s and resulted in the REBELLIONS OF 1837. The defeat of the PATRIOTES gave a political victory to the new anglophone bourgeoisie and after 1840 the francophone leaders had no choice but to agree to co-operate with them.
During the following years, fundamental changes took place in transportation and industry. Expansion of the St Lawrence canal system and the deepening of the channel to Québec City made Montréal the principal seaport. Railway construction, particularly of the GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY, made the city the hub of the railway system. Finally the process of industrialization, begun around the middle of the century, was to alter the city's face completely. After depending for generations on trade and commerce for its livelihood, Montréal was becoming a major industrial centre.
Montréal grew rapidly from 1850 to 1914. The population increased to 467 986 in 1911 (528 397 including the suburbs). The city proper overflowed its boundaries and quickly reached the cities in the suburbs, annexing 23 between 1883 and 1918. Industrial growth attracted those in search of employment. French Canadians living in rural areas poured into the city to join the urban proletariat and from 1865 francophones were again in the majority. Immigration increased dramatically at the turn of the century and Montréal became a more cosmopolitan city.
The settlement of the Canadian West was also important for the city's development. The CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY established its head office here in the 1880s. Much western grain was shipped through the port of Montréal, which was considerably enlarged at the beginning of the 20th century. Montréal was then indisputably the metropolis of Canada, and St-Jacques (St James) Street was the country's financial centre. TORONTO, however, was a powerful rival, and in the long run benefited more from western settlement and from the growing trade with the United States; by 1960 it had taken over Montréal's place as Canada's centre of economic activity. This was due in part to the massive influx of American industrial capital in Canada that was mostly directed towards Ontario.
After World War I, Montréal saw another period of growth based on industry, trade, finance and transportation. In 1931 the population of the city and suburbs reached over one million. But the GREAT DEPRESSION brought this period of expansion to a halt and caused grave social hardship. At the Depression's height, in February 1934, there were 62 000 unemployed in the city, with 240 000 receiving government assistance. The city administration ran into debt because of huge relief expenses and was placed under trusteeship by the provincial government in the early 1940s.
World War II stimulated production and employment and helped restore prosperity. The 1950s and 1960s saw strong growth. This growth was especially apparent in the suburbs, where many new cities sprang up, and in the downtown area.
Under the leadership of Mayor Jean DRAPEAU, Montréal embarked upon great projects, several on an international scale: the Métro (begun 1966), the International World Exposition (EXPO 67), the 1976 Summer OLYMPIC GAMES and the Floralies Internationales (1980). The earlier projects were undertaken during a period of relative prosperity, but a decline became more pronounced from the 1970s. After a long and painful industrial reorganization, marked by high unemployment, Montréal regained a strong vitality from the mid-1990s and entered the 21st century with a modernized and buoyant economy.
The city of Montréal's territory (495 km2) encompasses the whole island of Montréal and some smaller surrounding islands. Many riverside linear parks have been established all around the island and along the Lachine Canal. Mont Royal, a small mountain of volcanic origin (elevation about 200 m), dominates Montréal's landscape. Its graduated terraces mark the city's elevations and also determined its settlement pattern for many years. After a trial period at Pointe-à-Callière, Montréal's founder, Maisonneuve, moved to the elevated site (25 m) he had chosen farther from the river near Place d'Armes. This was to be the site of Vieux ("Old") Montréal, enclosed for many years by a wall, between 1718 and 1744 and demolished in the early 19th century.
Few visible traces of the early French settlement remain. With a dozen or so exceptions (Seminary, 1685 and Château Ramezay, 1705), the old buildings still in existence date from the 19th century; the area's wealthy residents have made way for stores, warehouses and office buildings. For a long time, downtown Montréal was confined to this area, centred around Notre-Dame and St-Jacques streets.
Since 1960, however, a new downtown area has grown up along René-Lévesque Boulevard (Dorchester Boulevard before 1987), which is lined with skyscrapers. The most famous is the cruciform PLACE VILLE MARIE (45 storeys), inaugurated in 1962. This expansion led to the remodelling of the city. Many buildings with historical value were demolished, ancient residential areas were radically altered and thousands of low-income residents were displaced, as was always the case in such actions in the 1950s and 1960s.
Around this downtown core are residential districts with the highest density of dwellings in the city, dating from the beginning of the century. The houses, built in rows, generally have 2 or 3 storeys and much-celebrated outdoor stairways, a trademark of Montréal architecture of this period. On the higher slopes of Mont Royal nestle the well-to-do areas, especially the boroughs of WESTMOUNT and OUTREMONT with their numerous parks, impressive mansions and elegant public buildings. At the mountain's main summit are the landmark park and 2 cemeteries.
Farther away are the newer districts built just after the war, such as Ahuntsic on the Rivière des Prairies. The density of dwellings is not as high here as in the older sectors. Finally, the vast suburban areas, developed from the late 1950s, are characterized by the North American-style single-family residence. They cover the western and eastern ends of the island (recently annexed to the city) and overflow onto Île Jésus (Laval) and the North Shore, as well as onto the vast South Shore (Longueuil).
The Montréal landscape is circumscribed by the majestic St Lawrence to the south and the Rivière des Prairies, skirting the north side of the island. Numerous bridges connect the different areas; 14 have been built for automobiles, 7 for railways and 1 for both uses. Facing the port of Montréal are 2 more islands in the St Lawrence. Île Ste-Hélène, a park for many years, was enlarged for Expo 67; the La Ronde amusement park is also located there. Next to it is the artificial Île Notre-Dame, built for Expo 67, which housed Floralies Internationales (1980); it is now a recreation playground and contains Casino de Montréal. Farther east the imposing shape of the Olympic Stadium (1976) dominates the district of Maisonneuve.
Since the mid-19th century, Montréal has had 3 distinct decades of rapid growth: 1851-61, 1901-11 and 1951-61. From 1966 to 1981 the number of city inhabitants declined and then rose slightly to stabilize at just over 1 million; during that period, most of the population increase occurred in the suburban cities. In 1931, 80% of the metropolitan area population lived in Montréal proper; in 1996 this figure was 31%. The 2002 annexations altered that trend as the city population rose to 1.8 million and to 53% of the metropolitan total.
Demographic growth has largely been the result of an influx of people from outside the city. The periods of most rapid growth coincided with the arrival of large numbers of immigrants. The most significant growth, however, was a result of internal migration. English-speaking Canadians living in Québec rural areas moved to the city, as did an even more significant number of French Canadians. After World War II, natural growth was also a major contributing factor. Today, most Montréalers are natives of the province.
During the greater part of the 19th century, 98% of Montréal's population was of French or British descent. The British were in the majority between 1831 and 1865; the French Canadians then regained first place and have since held this position. At the turn of the century contingents of JEWS from eastern Europe began to arrive, commencing the process of ethnic diversification that accelerated during the 20th century.
By 1996, francophones formed 67% of the census metropolitan area (CMA) population; anglophones accounted for 13%; and people whose mother tongue were other languages for 17.7%. A further 2.3% of the population gave multiple responses. Among the minority ethnic groups (24% of the CMA population in 1996), ITALIANS ranked first with 220 985 (6.7%) single and multiple responses. Some of the other major groups, such as Jews, GERMANS and CHINESE, have been present in Montréal for a very long time, while others, such as Haitians and GREEKS, arrived in significant numbers only in the latter part of the 20th century.
Economy and Labour
After having an economy based on the fur trade for 150 years, Montréal evolved into a diversified commercial metropolis, focusing on both international trade in basic products and on the distribution of manufactured goods. From the mid-19th century, industry played a growing role, and in the 20th century the services sector expanded with the rise of financial institutions, universities, engineering firms, etc. Today, trade, manufacturing and services are the main economic activities.
From the late 1960s, Montréal experienced much slower growth than in the previous decades. The rise of Toronto as the unchallenged metropolis of Canada triggered the moving of hundreds of corporate head offices, a process that gained momentum during the 1960s and 1970s and was fuelled in part by many anglophones' fears of the changing political and linguistic environment. This loss was only partly offset by the tremendous rise of major corporations owned or developed by francophone entrepreneurs (such as BOMBARDIER or QUEBECOR) or by the provincial government (HYDRO-QUÉBEC and CAISSE DE DÉPÔT ET PLACEMENT).
At the same time, Montréal's economy was deeply shaken by the major industrial reshuffle that affected most of the ancient manufacturing centres of North America and Europe. Its old, low-skilled manufacturing firms of consumer products geared to the domestic market were no match for the growing international competition. They closed their doors in droves and the survivors had to turn to highly automated production for niche markets. The city was particularly hard hit by the depressions of the early 1980s and 1990s and unemployment rose dramatically. Again, this was only partly offset by the rise of modern enterprises linked to the new economy.
Even if the social and economic scars are still obvious, the whole metropolitan area emerged from such a fundamental reshuffling with a modernized and competitive industrial structure. The city experienced a burst of activity during the second half of the 1980s, and a sustained growth from the mid-1990s. Montréal remains the second-largest metropolis in the country and hosts the headquarters of a number of Canada's major corporations. It is also a leading research and development centre, with its 4 universities and numerous research institutes and laboratories in areas such as telecommunications, pulp and paper, aerospace, software and pharmaceuticals.
The largest share of Canada's aeronautics production is carried out in metropolitan Montréal by Bombardier CANADAIR, Pratt & Whitney Canada, Bell Helicopter, CAE and numerous smaller firms. Other important manufacturing sectors include clothing, food and tobacco, electronics and metal products.
The largest proportion of the labour force works in the various service industries. With its stock exchange and the corporate headquarters of banks and other financial institutions, Montréal remains a significant financial centre, despite Toronto's dominant position. Its engineering firms are among the largest in the country. Although not a capital city, it has numerous federal and provincial government offices.
Montréal's strategic position and local expertise in transportation and aeronautics have attracted international organizations such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (see UNITED NATIONS); the world headquarters of the International Air Transport Association, which regulates air travel; and the International Society for Aeronautical Telecommunications, which has its North American head office here.
Montréal has long been a key seaport in eastern North America. Before the opening of the ST LAWRENCE SEAWAY in 1959, all goods destined for or coming from the Great Lakes had to be transshipped at Montréal. The constant improvement of navigation above and below the city began with the construction of the Lachine Canal in 1825 and the deepening of the channel between Montréal and Québec City in 1851. Port facilities now extend over 70 ha and accommodate some 1800 ships each year.
Long a major Canadian grain-exporting centre, Montréal's harbour has become one of the leading container-handling ports on the Eastern seaboard of North America with its numerous terminals equipped for this purpose. The outdated facilities in its core area have been transformed into a very popular recreational zone, called Le Vieux-Port.
Montréal has been closely associated with the history of Canadian railways and was long the hub of the great CN and CP Rail transcontinental systems. Its old glory faded away with the decline of rail transportation in eastern Canada. Montréal also lost ground in air transport, especially after 1970 when a second international airport opened at MIRABEL, making local connections more difficult. Since 1997 all scheduled international and domestic flights have been directed to Dorval (now Montréal-Trudeau), thus regaining its role as a hub airport, and chartered international flights will follow in 2003. Mirabel will be specialized in air cargo. AIR CANADA, the country's leading carrier, is headquartered in Montréal.
Interconnecting expressways, built mostly in the 1960s, crisscross the city and connect with numerous intercity highways. The public bus and subway systems are under the jurisdiction of the Société de transport de Montréal. The Montréal Métro glides quietly underground on rubber tires.
Historically, Montréal has been a leading communications centre in Canada. It also plays a distinct role as the home of most French-language media enterprises. The city houses the corporate headquarters, the head stations and the main studios of 4 francophone television networks: the federally owned Radio-Canada (the French-language equivalent of the CBC), the provincially owned educational Télé-Québec, and the privately owned TVA and Quatre-saisons. The francophone radio networks are located in Montréal. Such a concentration has stimulating effects on the whole cultural scene and allows Montréal to be one of the leading media centres of the international Francophonie. The anglophone population is also well served with 2 local television stations (CBC and CTV) and many local radio stations.
Montréal has 3 French-language dailies (La Presse, Le Devoir and Le Journal de Montréal) and one English language daily (The Gazette), as well as many weeklies and specialized magazines. The major French-language book publishing houses (Sogides, Québec-Amérique, Boréal, etc) are located there.
With the headquarters of BCE Inc and some of its subsidiaries, Montréal is a major player in the field of telecommunications. Multimedia production is very active, thanks to numerous and creative small- and medium-sized enterprises.
Government and Politics
Montréal was first granted its charter in 1832. From 1796, municipal affairs had been administered by magistrates not accountable to citizens for their actions. In 1836, with the provincial legislature out of session because of political unrest in Lower Canada, the city charter was not renewed, and the magistrates resumed their role. The city was granted a new charter in 1840. In 1851 election of the mayor was extended to the people, though only property owners and certain tenants had this privilege. In its first decades the council resembled a private club for important Montréal businessmen.
In the late 19th century, poor administration and corruption at city hall led some businessmen to form reformist groups. After a public inquiry, the provincial government created a Board of Control (4 elected members), limiting councillors' responsibilities in the general administration. Financial difficulties led the Québec government in 1918 to set up a 5-member administrative commission, with full powers to put the city back on its feet.
In 1921 city council regained its powers, and in 1940 it was reformed: one-third of the 99 councillors were elected by property owners, another third by property owners and tenants, and one-third were appointed by public bodies such as the Chamber of Commerce and the universities. The last category was abolished in 1960, and it was not until 1970 that the councillors and mayor were elected by universal suffrage. In 2002, the mayor and 73 councillors sat on the city council.
Since 1921 there has been an executive committee, whose members are city councillors chosen by the mayor. Chaired by a president, the executive committee controls the legislative agenda, drawing up the budget and the by-laws and motions submitted to the city council; and exercises the executive power. The executive committee has 12 members including the mayor.
In the 20th century, Montréal politics have been dominated by populist mayors who have held office for several terms: Médéric Martin (1914-24, 1926-28); Camillien HOUDE (1928-32, 1934-36, 1938-40, 1944-54), nicknamed "Mr Montréal"; and Jean Drapeau (1954-57 and 1960-86).
Drapeau's Parti civique de Montréal (founded 1960) transformed civic political customs, until then practised by somewhat lax interest groups and numerous independent councillors. The Parti civique held the majority of seats on council, lending cohesion and continuity to the city administration. During the 1970s citizens' committees, trade-union militants and progressive associations combined forces in opposition. They created the Montréal Citizens Movement (MCM) and, under the leadership of Jean Doré, they won the elections in 1986 and 1990. MCM implemented administrative reforms and greater citizen participation in the decision-making process but was criticized for overspending.
In 1994 the newly formed Vision Montréal swept to power under the leadership of Pierre Bourque with the promise of beautifying the city, cutting costs and simplifying the municipal bureaucracy, and was re-elected in 1998.
Montréal and the suburban cities have long disputed the sharing of costs and responsibilities for urban development. Between 1970 and 2001 all municipalities on the island were represented in the Montréal Urban Community (MUC), a public body with island-wide responsibilities, including police protection, urban planning, sewage treatment services and antipollution activities. Municipal reorganization nevertheless remained a divisive issue despite numerous proposals put forward by various inquiry commissions. In late 2000 the provincial government decided to merge the island's 28 municipalities into a single city. Many suburban municipalities and their citizens clamoured in protest and even challenged the law up to the Supreme Court, to no avail. Amalgamation took place on 1 January 2002. A few weeks before, the Montréal Island Citizens Union under the leadership of Gérald Tremblay had won both the mayoralty and a majority of seats in the new city council, thanks to strong support from the former suburbs.
The new law provided some measure of decentralization with the creation of 27 boroughs, each with its own elected council. Boroughs are responsible for local public works and neighbourhood services.
At the regional level, the provincial government also created in 2000 the Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal as a coordination body between Montréal, Longueuil, Laval and the other outlying suburban municipalities. Its territory encompasses most of the metropolitan area.
The presence of a strong francophone population gives Montréal a distinctive character among large North American cities. It is the main centre of expression and diffusion of French Canadian culture, as well as the meeting place between the French and American cultures. The anglophone minority also has its particular cultural institutions here.
Montréal is an important university centre, with 2 French-speaking universities - UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL and UNIVERSITÉ DU QUÉBEC À MONTRÉAL - and 2 English-speaking universities - MCGILL and CONCORDIA. The Québec National Library, located here, has copies of all works published in the province. In late 2003 it will move to a new building (La Grande Bibliothèque du Québec) and integrate the main collections of the municipal library. The latter institution will remain active through its numerous local libraries established in the various boroughs of the city. The MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS, established over a century ago, contains a general collection; the MUSÉE D'ART CONTEMPORAIN collects the works of 20th-century artists. Other museums include the McCord Museum, specializing in ethnology and the history of Canada, Pointe-à-Callière in the archaeology and history of Montreal, and the world-class CANADIAN CENTRE FOR ARCHITECTURE.
The main centre for performing arts is PLACE DES ARTS (with 3 concert halls), where the ORCHESTRE SYMPHONIQUE DE MONTRÉAL performs. The city also enjoys the ORCHESTRE MÉTROPOLITAIN and the OPÉRA DE MONTRÉAL. LES GRANDS BALLETS CANADIENS and other dance companies are based in Montréal. Many French-language theatre companies perform there, including THÉÂTRE DU NOUVEAU MONDE, CARBONE 14, THÉÂTRE DU RIDEAU VERT, Théâtre de Quat'Sous, Espace Go and Théâtre Ubu. The city houses the world-renowned CIRQUE DU SOLEIL and the École nationale du cirque.
Montréal BOTANICAL GARDEN (founded 1931) is the second-largest of its kind in the world, with a collection that now exceeds 26 000 different plant species. The Montréal Biodome houses thousands of plants and animals living in environments representative of 4 distinct ecosystems of the Americas.
The Molson Centre is home to the MONTREAL CANADIENS, the city's most famous professional sports team. They have won the STANLEY CUP more often than any other team and are one of sport's most enduring dynasties. The MONTREAL EXPOS play in the National Baseball League, and 9 years after being disbanded, the MONTREAL ALOUETTES returned to the CFL for the 1996-97 season. The city hosts the annual Canadian Grand Prix Formula 1 automobile race. Montréal is also a centre for international competitions in amateur sports, the most famous held so far being the 1976 Summer Olympics.
Montréal hosts many major seasonal attractions. In May the Theatre of the Americas Festival brings together, every second year, original plays and playwrights from the 3 Americas and Europe. In June begins the International Fireworks Competition, the world's largest pyrotechnical display. The Montréal International Jazz Festival gets underway in early July with jazz musicians performing in halls around the city as well as in the streets. This is followed by the Just for Laughs Festival in both English and French, then by the French song and music festival Francofolies, and the World Film Festival as summer closes.
Author PAUL-ANDRÉ LINTEAU
Links to Other Sites
The official website of the City of Laval, Quebec.
The official website for the City of Montréal. Click on "Activities and recreation" to access information about the many outstanding cultural and heritage sites within the city.
A comprehensive visitor's guide to the City of Montréal. From the Greater Montréal Convention and Tourism Bureau.
Montréal World Film Festival
The official website of the Montréal World Film Festival. Every year, films from more than seventy countries, including well-known and first-time filmmakers alike, are selected. The Festival welcomes cinema professionals and the general public.
Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21
The website for a museum devoted to history of Pier 21 in Halifax, once the primary point of entry for immigration to Canada. Check out the virtual exhibits, lesson plans, and online copies of "The Passport" newsletter.
Canadian Illustrated News
Articles and pictures from the "Canadian Illustrated News", a periodical published in Montreal from 1869 to 1883. Interesting insights into Canadian life and politics. From Library and Archives Canada.
Urban Life through Two Lenses
This interactive multimedia website encourages viewers to compare photographs of Montréal locations taken 100 years apart. Illustrates how historical photographic images can challenge our perception of reality. From the McCord Museum and the Virtual Museum.
Artwork Awaiting Discovery
See an online exhibit spanning three centuries of art that are part of the collection at Montréal’s Maison Saint-Gabriel Museum. Also profiles the lives of the colourful artists who painted them. From la Maison Saint-Gabriel and the Virtual Museum of Canada.
French Canada and the Early Decades of British Rule (1760 - 1791)
A digitized copy of a booklet that examines the issues and policies that defined Britian's administration of its North American colonies in the decades preceeding the implementation of the Quebec Act and the Constitutional Act. From the Canadian Historical Association and Library and Archives Canada.
Orchestre symphonique de Montreal
The website for the internationally renowned Orchestre symphonique de Montreal. See the latest news and concert calendar, discography, musician profiles, and multimedia featuring their performances and recordings.
The Victoria Bridge
This fascinating virtual exhibit focuses on the history of Montreal’s famous Victoria Bridge. Produced by the McCord Museum in Montreal.
Keys to History
Search this "Keys to History" website for fascinating online exhibits about notable people, places, and events in Canadian history. From Montréal's McCord Museum.
Héritage Montréal is dedicated to the preservation of the city's urban, architectural, landscape and social heritage. Check out their walking tours to notable heritage sites.
Relive the excitement of Montreal’s Expo 67 at this multimedia Library and Archives Canada website.
Drapeau does it again!
This CBC website focuses on Jean Drapeau's efforts to win the 1976 Summer Olympics for the City of Montréal.
Musée Marguerite-Bourgeoys & Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Bon Secours
The website for the historical Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel and the Marguerite Bourgeoys Museum in Montreal. Crowning an ancient promontory above the Saint Lawrence River, once a favoured Amerindian campsite, a 300-year-old chapel, a museum of history and an archaeological site invite you to hear what they have to say about the people who founded Montreal.
Museums to Discover
This Société des musées québécois website features an interesting multimedia overview of Quebec museum themes. Includes a directory of Québec museums.
Geographical Names of Canada
Search the "Canadian Geographical Names Data Base" for the official name of a city, town, lake (or any other geographical feature) in any province or territory in Canada. See also the real story of how Toronto got its name. A Natural Resources Canada website.
Old Montréal - Following the Trail of the Fortified City
This fascinating multimedia archaeological tour focuses on the 18th-century fortified city in Old Montréal. Features detailed diagrams of historic sites.
An online exhibit devoted to the history of Maison Saint-Gabriel. From the Museum of New France at the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
The website for the Orchestre Métropolitain. Features a current concert calendar, a discography, and background information about the orchestra.
Beautiful flora and fauna are the stars of this multimedia website dedicated to the protection of Canada’s boreal forests. From the Centre for Conservation of Boreal Biodiversity in Quebec.
The Society of Saint Sulpice in Canada
A brief history of the Society’s activities in the province of Québec. From The Canadian Province Sulpicians.
Place des Arts
The website for Montréal's prestigious Place des Arts, home of the Salle Wilfrid-Pelletier, Théâtre Maisonneuve, Théâtre Jean-Duceppe, the Studio-théâtre and the Cinquième salle.
Montréal by Metro
The unofficial website for fans of Montreal's metro system. You can choose to read more on the whole network by making a choice from the menus on the left or at the bottom of the screen, or to examine a particular station by scrolling to the bottom of this page and choosing one of the station indices there.
Expo 67: Montréal Welcomes the World
Check out a selection of radio and television clips about Expo 67 from the CBC Digital Archives.
Saucier + Perrotte architectes
The website for Montréal-based Saucier + Perrotte architectes features a multimedia portfolio of their noteworthy cultural, academic, institutional, and residential projects.
Port of Montréal
A nicely illustrated history of the Port of Montréal. A pdf file.
This website is dedicated to Mount Royal, Montréal’s beautiful urban park. Features current attractions and a brief history of this legendary landmark.
Pointe-à-Callière, Musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal
The website for Pointe-à-Callière, Montréal Museum of Archaeology and History. Features a multimedia gallery and information about educational programs, the unique building design, and more.
The Miracle on Mount Royal
This CBC site features audio and video news clips about Brother André and the 100 year history of St. Joseph's Oratory.
A detailed information source about the redevelopment of the Benny Farm site in Montréal.
The Photographic Studio of William Notman
A multimedia website devoted to William Notman, one of Canada’s most eminent and innovative photographers. Includes online photo galleries, educational activities, and more. From the McCord Museum and the Virtual Museum.
Check out the latest news and online features from the "Montreal Gazette” newspaper. A Postmedia Network Inc. website.
Black History Canada
An extensive Internet portal featuring links to online resources about the history and culture of the Black community in Canada. Topics include enslavement, early Black settlements, human rights, immigration, and prominent personalities and community leaders in business, government, religion, sports, the military, and the arts. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Schulich School of Music
The website for the Schulich School of Music of McGill University.
The Montréal Planetarium
The official Web site of the Montréal Planetarium. A treasure-trove of information about what's going on above our heads
Montreal International Musical Competition
The Montreal International Musical Competition plays a key role in the finest tradition of classical concert music. The Competition seeks to discover, reward and support young singers, violinists and pianists who have distinguished themselves as masters of their art.
Québec Official Road Map
The website for the Québec official road map. From the Government of Québec.
In Praise of Modernist Civic Spaces in Canadian Cities
An illustrated article about the design and use of civic spaces associated with modern Canadian buildings such as Place Ville Marie and the Toronto-Dominion Centre. By prominent McGill architect Derek Drummond. A PDF file.
What is Urban Design?
An illustrated introduction to urban design from the School of Architecture at McGill University.
The Montréal Biodôme invites you to take a virtual tour of its ecosystems.
Festivals et Événements au Québec
Check out the extensive event listings in the website for Festivals et Événements au Québec.
Infants, Nutrition and Health in 20th Century Montreal
Historic milestones in Canadian pediatric medicine. From the McCord Museum of Canadian History.
Port of Montréal
Scroll through this online photo gallery depicting the early years of the Port of Montréal. From the website for the Montreal Gazette newspaper.
Association of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives
Check out the digitized archival images of Canadian cities and more at this website for the Association of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives.
Scroll down this site for "Montreal, 1979," an essay about Montréal’s lively disco scene in the 1970s and early 1980s. From the book "Accounting for Culture: Thinking Through Cultural Citizenship." From the website for Will Straw, PhD, Department of Art History and Communications Studies, McGill University. A PDF file.
Cahiers de géographie du Québec
This website offers abstracts in English of selected article from the journal "Cahiers de géographie du Québec." Click on the cover image to access content.
Montréal Blues Society
The website for the Montréal Blues Society. Check out the latest news and events in the Montréal region.
Maison Saint-Gabriel, A Present From The Past!
Learn about the history of early Montreal and New France in this multimedia tour of the interior rooms and furnishings of the historic Maison Saint-Gabriel. Produced by the Virtual Museum
The Days Before Christmas
See a documentary that highlights the annual Christmas festivities in Montréal. From the National Film Board of Canada.
Santa Claus Parade
See historical highlights of the popular annual Santa Claus Parade in downtown Montréal.
A detailed academic paper about public art landmarks created in Montréal's Italian-Canadian community in the 1920s - 1930s. See page 129 for references to John Cabot, page 142 the Notre-Dame-de-la-Défense church, and page 154 for Guido Nincheri. From Concordia University.
The website for Jane’s Walk, a network of free walking tours that explore the quality and livability of local neighbourhoods based on ideas espoused by Jane Jacobs. Click on "The Community" to access the latest news and photos on their blog and more. Also, check out "Find Your Walk" for maps and descriptions of local walks throughout the country.
Shawnadithit grew anxious waiting for her uncle, Longnon, to return to camp at the junction of Badger Brook and the Exploits River, deep in the wilds of Newfoundland...