Video clips of Jim Cantelon's interview with hockey great Paul Henderson. Focuses on the memorable 1972 hockey series between Canada and the Soviet Union. From YouTube
Wherever there is pictorial or literary evidence that a game of bandy was played on ice in early Canada, local enthusiasts claim to have discovered the birthplace of ice hockey. Thus, Halifax and Windsor, Nova Scotia, and Kingston, Ontario, have variously put forward their claim. (Dutch immigrants played a version of kolv in colonial New York as well.) The last quarter of the 19th century was the great period of social organization, and during this time many sports moved out of long periods of unwritten rules and widely differing local variation towards standardization. Shinty's rules were set in 1879 and those for bandy in 1891. Organized ice hockey, as we would recognize it today, has its true origins in Montréal in 1875, where J.G.A. Creighton, a McGill student, established a set of formal rules. The key innovation was the substitution of a flat, wooden disk (puck), which offered the players far more control than they had over a ball. No sensible origin has been found for the word "puck."
Organization of the Sport and Origins of the Stanley Cup
In 1879 the first organized team, the McGill University Hockey Club, was formed, and with the advent of a basic set of rules the sport quickly spread across Canada. The first "world championship" was held in 1883 at the Montreal Ice Carnival and was won by McGill. The first national association, known as the Amateur Hockey Association of Canada, was formed in 1886, with representatives from Québec City, Montréal and Ottawa. A group of colleges, universities and military and athletic clubs formed the Ontario Hockey Association in 1890. Governor General Lord STANLEY donated a trophy in 1893 for the national championship, and the first STANLEY CUP game was played 22 March 1893, with Montreal AAA victorious before a crowd of 5000.
Early hockey was played in rudimentary conditions, mostly outdoors on patches of natural ice, with snowbanks for boards and wooden posts for goals. There were 9 players per side on the ice, and the puck could not be passed forward. The onside rule and primitive face-off ("bully") were adapted from RUGBY.
With speed and rough play the game had immediate attraction, and strong local rivalries developed. The sport spread to US universities, beginning with Yale in 1893. Europe's hockey origins date to Vienna in 1885. Belgium, Bohemia, France, Great Britain and Switzerland formed the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1908, and Germany joined in 1909. The Winnipeg Falcons won the first international world championship, held at the Olympic Games in Antwerp in 1920. The Toronto Granites overwhelmed all opposition to win the first Winter Olympics in 1924, and U of T Grads won again for Canada in 1928.
Growth of Professionalism
The development of hockey in Canada was profoundly changed by the growth and final ascendancy of professionalism. In the prevailing climate of the late 19th century playing for money was considered immoral, but many players accepted money secretly. The first overtly professional league was formed in 1903 with teams from Pittsburgh, Pa.; Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.; and Houghton, Calumet and Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. Most of the best players were Canadian; they commanded extravagant salaries, lived nomadically from one season to the next and played for the highest bidder. At one time, Fred "Cyclone" TAYLOR was the highest-paid athlete in North America.
The Ontario Professional League, organized for the 1908 season, was the first openly professional league in Canada. The Eastern Canada Hockey Association turned professional in November 1908. The rival National Hockey Association was formed in 1909 and was reorganized in 1917 as the NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE. Professional hockey soon required indoor stadiums, artificial ice and large payrolls. Successful teams in smaller centres, such as the Renfrew Millionaires, disappeared; the NHL teams were all in larger cities - for example, the MONTREAL CANADIENS, Montreal Wanderers, OTTAWA SENATORS, Toronto St. Pats and, briefly, Quebec Bulldogs and Hamilton Tigers.
Expansion into the US
The Montreal Maroons entered the NHL in 1924 and the league successfully moved into the lucrative urban market of the US, adding the Boston Bruins (1924), the New York Americans (1925), the Pittsburgh Pirates (1925), the New York Rangers (1926), the Chicago Black Hawks (1926) and the Detroit Cougars (1926). However, almost every one of the players came from Canada.
The NHL dominated hockey, monopolized players and controlled salaries and player movement. A few exceptional players were paid up to $10 000 per season, but in the 1920s the average salary had dropped to $900, despite player protests and a threatened strike. After 1945 the controversial C-Form gave NHL teams exclusive control over the future careers of boys from age 15. The sole purpose of amateur junior hockey became the development of players for the NHL - not to win titles or to represent a community, but to identify individual prospects.
Towards the Modern Game: Rule Changes
The present form of the sport took shape in the professional leagues, the NHL and the Pacific Coast League. Key innovations were 3 20-minute periods (1910), 6 players (1911), and a gradual relaxation of the stricture against the forward pass: allowed between blue lines (1918), within any of the 3 zones (1929-30), and across blue lines (1930-31). The red line was added in 1943-44. The result was a faster game and more team play.
Although competition remained keen in smaller centres for the amateur trophies, the Allan Cup and Memorial Cup, the focus remained on the NHL. The number of teams dwindled to 6, however, with only the TORONTO MAPLE LEAFS and the Montreal Canadiens in Canada. The Ottawa Senators dominated the 1920s, with 4 league titles and 4 Stanley Cup victories, but the team folded in 1934.
Some early exploits live on: Joe MALONE scored 7 goals in 1 game in 1920; George HAINSWORTH won the VÉZINA TROPHY in its first 3 years; and in March 1923 Foster HEWITT broadcast a game on radio for the first time. Outstanding players of the era included Frank "King" CLANCY, Charlie CONACHER, Bill COOK, Aurèle JOLIAT, Lester PATRICK and Nels STEWART. Howie MORENZ was the flashiest player, and Eddie SHORE the premier defenceman.
The 1940s and 1950s
The schedule continued to increase, to 48 games in the 1930s and 70 games in 1949-50. The Toronto Maple Leafs, led by Walter "Turk" BRODA, Syl APPS, Ted KENNEDY and Max BENTLEY, were the dominant team of the 1940s, winning the Stanley Cup 6 times in 10 years. But Maurice "Rocket" RICHARD of the Canadiens was clearly the outstanding offensive player, scoring 50 goals in 50 games in 1944-45, including 5 goals and 3 assists in 1 game.
The outstanding team of the early 1950s was the Detroit Red Wings, led by Gordie HOWE (who won the scoring championship 5 times and the HART TROPHY 4 times in the decade), Red KELLY, Ted LINDSAY and Terry SAWCHUK. In the mid-1950s the Montreal Canadiens built possibly the most powerful team in NHL history, with Maurice and Henri Richard, Bernie GEOFFRION, Jean BÉLIVEAU, Jacques PLANTE, Dickie Moore, Doug HARVEY and others. The Canadiens won the Stanley Cup 6 times, including a record 5 straight.
The 1960s and Expansion
The NHL expanded into 6 American centres in 1967: Los Angeles, Oakland, St. Louis, Minnesota, Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. The VANCOUVER CANUCKS were added in 1970-71, with Buffalo. Toronto won the Stanley Cup 4 more times before expansion, and Montreal began another string. Chicago managed its first Stanley Cup victory in 23 years in 1960-61, led by the brilliant Bobby HULL, Stan MIKITA and Glenn HALL.
Scoring increased in the diluted league, and Phil ESPOSITO of the Boston Bruins set new records for goals (76) in a season and points (152), while defenceman Bobby ORR revolutionized his position, becoming the first defenceman to win the scoring championship. The offensive emphasis of the sport was typified in the 1980s by the incredible scoring feats of Wayne GRETZKY, which are perhaps unmatched in any sport, and of Mario LEMIEUX.
The Rival League
The NHL's monopoly of professional hockey was broken in 1971 when the WORLD HOCKEY ASSOCIATION was organized, signing more than 70 players from the NHL, including Bobby Hull. It began with 12 teams and grew to 14 before rising expenses and dwindling crowds reduced it to 7. Fighting had always been tolerated in Canadian hockey, but with the dilution of talent the increased brawling severely tarnished the sport. A number of well-publicized incidents even brought players into court.
In 1979 the feud between the rival leagues ended with a merger, as the WINNIPEG JETS, EDMONTON OILERS, QUÉBEC NORDIQUES and Hartford Whalers were assimilated by the NHL. The competition for players had substantially raised salaries and finally brought NHL teams to more Canadian cities. In 1980 a team was moved from Atlanta, Ga., to become the CALGARY FLAMES.
Further expansion in the 1990s resulted in Ottawa re-establishing the Senators. In 1983-84 Edmonton became the first of the ex-WHA teams to win the Stanley Cup, ending a 4-year reign by the New York Islanders; the high-scoring Oilers captured the cup 4 of the next 6 seasons before being dismantled by the team's owner. In the early 1990s, Lemieux's Pittsburgh Penguins became the dominant team. Skyrocketing salaries led to financial difficulties for several franchises. The Nordiques succumbed in 1995 and were relocated to Denver. In 1996 the Jets were also sold, to a group in Phoenix.
The sport faced another significant event at the close of the decade when Gretzky, widely regarded as the game's greatest player, retired in April 1999.
The Game in the 2000s
By the year 2000, with the addition of the Minnesota Wild and Columbus Blue Jackets that year, the NHL had expanded to 30 teams. Yet Canadian teams were increasingly pressured to compete financially with American markets, and Toronto was the only Canadian team to consistently play to sell-out crowds. The NHL's Canadian Assistance Program offers aid only when teams can demonstrate their viability, and for most teams in Canada, viability is continually threatened by declining attendance. In 1999 the Ottawa Senators' management announced that unless the federal government was willing to offer financial support, the Senators would be the next Canadian team sold to the US. A startling announcement in January 2000 outlined how the federal government would offer annual aid to Canadian hockey teams until 2004. The proposal was vehemently criticized, however, and immediately retracted, but the Senators remained.
Yet, the pressure continued to mount as a result of the players' resistance to a salary cap, and in 2004 team owners enforced a lockout banning members of the NHL Players' Association (hockey players) from play, lasting 310 days from late-2004 to mid-2005. A salary cap of $39 million (US) per team and a significant reduction in players' salaries was the result of the strike, but it was the first time a major North American sports league had lost an entire season due to a labour dispute. It also resulted in cancellation of the STANLEY CUP playoffs, and for second time in its history the cup was not awarded. However, when the 2005 collective bargaining agreement expired in 2012 a new agreement could not be reached and the league locked out players once more. The impasse left the sport reeling once again, in danger of cancelling an entire season for the second time in a decade.
In recent years, the number of NHL players recruited from Canadian junior hockey has dropped by 20% as an increasing number are coming from Europe and the US. Yet, several stars have emerged from Canadian rinks, including Jonathan Toews and Sidney CROSBY.
After winning the world championship with senior amateur teams against the world's best players 15 of 19 times from 1920 to 1952, Canada managed victories in 1955, 1958 and 1961, but then not again until 1994 and 1997. After the Soviets won the world championship in 1954 and the Olympic gold medal in Cortina in 1956, they began to dominate international hockey. From 1963 to 1973 the Soviets won 11 of 12 Olympic and world championships, but Canadians still believed that the Soviets would collapse in competition with professionals. Finally an NHL all-star team met the Soviets in the 1972 CANADA-SOVIET HOCKEY SERIES, perhaps the most dramatic sports event in Canadian history. Canada's narrow victory (with 4 victories, 3 losses and 1 tie) was tantamount to a national identity crisis. The 25th anniversary of the series (ie, Canada's victory) was widely celebrated in Canada in 1997.
Canadian teams had continued success in the CANADA CUP and its successor, the World Cup, an international competition of national all-star teams held every 3 or 4 years, winning in 1976, 1984, 1987 and 1991 (losing only in 1980 and 1996). Canada's Olympic team won Olympic silver medals without NHL players in both 1992 and 1994 (see CANADIAN OLYMPIC HOCKEY TEAMS), but Soviet (later Russian) teams continued to dominate the world championships and the Olympics (winning again in 1992).
The spread and growing proficiency of hockey in Sweden, Finland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the US is reflected in the increasing number of players from these countries in the NHL, including many of the Russian, Swedish, Finnish and Czech stars who emerged in the 1990s.
Since 1994 Canada has won the world championship twice, Finland and Sweden once, and the Czech Republic 4 times. Sweden won the Olympic gold medal in 1996 and the Czechs won it in 1998.
Canada's failures in international competition, particularly their losses to the Americans in the World Cup in 1997 and to the Czechs in the Nagano Olympics in 1998, set off a new round of hand-wringing in Canada. Phone-in shows, newspaper articles and television documentaries warned that Canadians could no longer dominate or even remain among the best in their national sport. While the debate helped to focus attention on the lack of time spent teaching Canadian youngsters to play the game with skill and on the outdated emphasis on rugged individualism or on the meaningless grind of the NHL season, this outburst of angst overlooked a number of factors. Canada still had the largest number of young people playing hockey. Canada had won the World Junior Championships 10 times since the Championships first began in 1977, and won the prestigious title 5 years in a row from 1993 to 1997. Interest in women's hockey was growing fast with the sport's acceptance at the Olympic level (Canada won the silver medal in Nagano). In the ebb and flow of great players, many of Canada's greatest players were long past the apex of their careers in 1997-98. Mario Lemieux had just retired. Canadian teams still lacked the experience of the Europeans on the large ice surface and in the infamous shootout, which cost Canada against the Czech team.
Just as after their loss of innocence in 1972, Canadians were not about to lose their passion for hockey or cease to consider it an intimate part of their northern identity after the Olympic failure. Even the puzzling economics of the professional sport, in which owners seemed to benefit more from playing to empty stands in Carolina than to full arenas in Edmonton and Calgary, did not seem to diminish Canadians' love for the game.
Canada's Olympic hockey gold-medal drought officially ended when the women's team defeated the Americans 3-2 at Salt Lake City in 2002. In a reversal of the circumstances at the Nagano games, when the Canadian women were heavily favoured to win, but lost, Canada came to Salt Lake City with a recent 0-8 pre-Olympic record against the US. Focused, intense, and fired up by rumours that the Americans had abused the Canadian flag on their dressing-room floor, the Canadians prevailed 3-2 despite an endless stream of penalties called by the American referee.
The Canadian men's team had a more difficult road, since there were at least 5 other teams with legitimate chances to win gold. Wayne GRETZKY was chosen to manage the team in November of 2000 and he and his staff, including his chosen coach Pat Quinn of the TORONTO MAPLE LEAFS, determined to choose skilled players who could play on the wider international surface. The team's performance in the preliminary round did not inspire confidence in the media or among fans, as Canada lost to Sweden 5-2, eked out a 3-2 victory over a weak German team, and then tied the Czechs 3-3. Stung by criticism, Gretzky delivered a diatribe against the team's detractors, especially those in the media. In the quarterfinal game against the Finns, who had beaten the Russians, Canada took a 2-0 lead and held on to win 2-1. Confidence grew as Canada had outplayed the Finns, outshooting them 34-19. Canada's route to the gold-medal game opened fortuitously when goalie Tommy Salo allowed a fluke goal and Belarus defeated Sweden. Canada beat Belarus easily, 7-1. Although Canada controlled play early in the gold-medal game, the US scored first. Canada tied the game with a goal by Paul Kariya 6 minutes later and Joe Sakic fed a pass to Jarome Iginla for the lead before the end of the first period. The Americans tied the game in the second period, but Joe Sakic scored to give Canada a lead, which it nursed into the third period. Late goals by Iginla and Sakic gave Canada a 5-2 win. Sakic was named MVP of the tournament.
Canada's men's team did not repeat their gold medal performance at the Torino Olympics in 2006. In all, 12 teams were seeded into round-robin pools, with Canada considered one of the best. Consisting of the cream of the NHL, players with more than 320 goals among them to that point in the season, the team suddenly lost its touch and direction and went out in the quarter final round, settling for a disappointing 7th place with Sweden, Finland and the Czech Republic winning gold, silver and bronze respectively.
It was the Canadian women's team who emerged victorious once again in 2006. Canada and the US were again widely considered to be the gold and silver medal contenders, but Sweden managed to eke out the US to play the final match with Canada, with Canada claiming gold with a 4-1 victory. It was the first time that both Canada and US had faced serious contenders in international women's hockey besides each other.
Canada brought strong, cohesive teams to the international stage at the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games and, as a result, secured gold medal victories in both the men's and women's tournaments. The men's team was selected from a highly successful group of Canadian NHL players, managed by the legendary Steve YZERMAN and coached by Mike Babcock. The team secured 2 victories, against the Norwegians and Swiss, before they were defeated by the US 5-3. In a renewed effort, which included replacing goalie Martin Brodeur with Roberto Luongo and adjusting several lines, the team was able to rally with a score of 8-2 against Germany. They defeated Russia and then Slovakia, advancing to the final round and leaving Finland to take the bronze against Slovakia. The media hype leading up to the final gold medal game on 28 Feb focused on the US' attempt to repeat their gold medal victory on the 30th anniversary of their "miracle on ice" win against the Soviet Union at Lake Placid in 1980. In one of the most closely contested games in Olympic history, Canada defeated the US 3-2 in overtime when centre Sidney CROSBY, assisted by Jarome Iginla, scored against US goalie Ryan Miller. Crosby's goal is considered one of the greatest in the history of Canadian hockey.
As in 2002 and 2006 Canada's women's team dominated Olympic competition on its way to the gold medal against the US on 25 Feb. Coached once again by Melody Davidson, the slightly younger team began the tournament with a shutout against Slovakia, and went on to defeat the Swiss and Sweden before achieving another shutout against Finland. In the gold medal match the women once against secured a shutout, this time against the US with a score of 2-0, winning their third Olympic gold in as many Olympic showings. The team was later chastised by the media for taking its victory party on to the ice after the fans had left the building.
Though Canada had been considered a hockey nation for nearly a century, Canada's success at Paralympic sledge hockey did not come as easily as it had in the traditional sport. Sledge hockey, played by athletes with a lower extremity disability, was developed by 3 Swedish players on a frozen outdoor rink in Stockholm in 1961. The sport grew rapidly, with Canada first participating in international competition in 1976. Canada sent a team to the inaugural sledge hockey tournament at the Paralympics in 1994 but had marginal success. The team became a formidable international opponent in 1996 when it won bronze at the world championships, following that success with a gold medal performance in 2000. Still, a Paralympic gold eluded them until 2006 when, at Torino, Canada emerged victorious in the men's sledge hockey tournament against Norway. After a difficult time in round robin play, the team managed to qualify for the gold medal round, in which they defeated Norway 3-0. The team repeated its gold medal performance against Norway at the world championships in 2008.
Canada was unable to repeat this success on home soil at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympics. Though they began the tournament in a strong position with victories over Italy, Sweden and Norway, their loss to Japan in the semi-finals placed them in the bronze medal game against Norway, where they were defeated 2-1.
Author JAMES MARSH
The Official National Hockey League 75th Anniversary Commemorative Book (1991); Dan Diamond, ed, The Official National Hockey League Stanley Cup Centennial Book (1992); D'Arcy Jenish, The Stanley Cup (1992); Years of Glory 1942-1967 (1994); Richard Gruneau, David Whitson, Hockey Night in Canada: Sport, Identities and Cultural Politics (1994); Mike Leonetti, Hockey's Golden Era: Stars of The Original Six (1998); Bill Boyd, Hockey Towns: Stories of Small Town Hockey in Canada (1999); Andrew Holman, Canada's Game, Hockey and Identity (2009); Lorna Schultz Nicholson, Winning Gold, Canada's Incredible 2002 Olympic Victory in Women's Hockey (2009); Wayne Norton, Women on Ice, The Early Years of Women's Hockey in Western Canada; Lorna Schultz Nicholson, Fighting for Gold, The Story of Canada's Sledge Hockey Paralympic Gold (2009); Andrew Podnieks, Canada's Olympic Hockey History (2010).
Links to Other Sites
Hockey Canada is the governing body for amateur hockey in Canada. Oversees hockey programming in Canada from the entry level to international competitions, including World Championships, the World Cup of Hockey and Olympic Games. Check out Team Canada and information about national and regional hockey championships.
Hockey Hall of Fame
The Hockey Hall of Fame website features inductee's biographies, career highlights, and related video clips.
The official website of the Montreal Canadiens hockey team.
National Hockey League
The NHL website features the latest league news and statistics, video clips of game highlights, and more. Check the bottom of the page for additional links.
A brief history of professional hockey's top trophy, the Stanley Cup. Click on the links for more detailed information. From the Hockey Hall of Fame and Museum.
Toronto Maple Leafs
The official website for the legendary Toronto Maple Leafs hockey team.
Admired in life, revered in death
A tribute to hockey legend Maurice Richard from the CBC Digital Archives.
Science of Hockey
Great site devoted to the science involved in the development of hockey playing skills. From the Exploratorium in the US.
This website is devoted to past and present aboriginal hockey players in Canada.
Hockey: A Nation's Passion
Skate through this interactive multimedia website about the history and cultural impact of Canada’s national sport and pastime. From the Virtual Museum of Canada.
Backcheck: A Hockey Retrospective
Trace the development of Canada's national sport in this collection of historic hockey photographs, stories, and documents. See also the link to "Backcheck: Hockey for Kids" at the bottom of the page. From Library and Archives Canada.
The Spirit of Hockey
Classic CBC television and radio clips about Canada's national sport.
The Life of Sir John Franklin, R.N.
This 1825 account of a hockey game played by Sir John Franklin and his expeditionary team is from “The life of Sir John Franklin, R.N.”, by H.D. Traill. A Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions website.
Top 10 Things Canadians Should Know About Canada
Click on the 101things.ca link to discover the top 10 things people should know about Canada, a list developed from a national survey of what Canadians felt were the 101 people, places, symbols, events and innovations that most define our nation. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Canadian Olympic Team
See profiles of your favourite Canadian Olympic athletes as well as results and reports from previous Olympic Games. Click on "About" for details on the Canadian Olympic School Program and Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame. From the Canadian Olympic Committee.
The "Canadian Olympians" website offers a searchable images database of Canadian athletes at the Olympics, from the early 1900s through 2002. From Library and Archives Canada.
Sport Information Resource Centre
The website for the Sport Information Resource Centre (SIRC). Check "Online Resources" for information about "concussion" issues, high performance sports, and more.
Hockey Night in Canada
Tune into some great audio clips from the early days of hockey broadcasting on CBC Radio.
Former members of the Edmonton Mercurys reminisce about bringing home Olympic hockey gold. From the CBC Digital Archives.
Search this site for news stories about the Edmonton Mercurys 1952 Olympic gold medal in men’s hockey. From "Backcheck: A Hockey Retrospective," Library and Archives Canada.
Hockey Night In Canada Theme
This site is dedicated to the hockey theme originally composed for the CBC program “Hockey Night In Canada.” Features an interview with Dolores Claman and information about sheet music for arrangements for piano and other instruments.
Notable Women Hockey Players
Brief profiles of notable women hockey players from the website for the Hockey Hall of Fame and Museum.
The official website for medal-winning Canadian athlete Hayley Wickenheiser.
National Hockey Hero - Paul Henderson
Video clips of Jim Cantelon's interview with hockey great Paul Henderson. Focuses on the memorable 1972 hockey series between Canada and the Soviet Union. From YouTube.
Glossary: Ice Hockey
A glossary of terms commonly used in the sport of ice hockey. From the TMLFever.com website.
Glossary: Hockey History
A glossary of historic ice hockey terms. From the website for Hants County in Nova Scotia.
Hockey: A People's History
The website for "Hockey: A People's History," a CBC series that brings alive the roots of a game that has shaped a nation. Check out the hockey timeline, the "virtual hot stove," and more.
Town of Windsor
The website for the Town of Windsor, Nova Scotia. Check out the hockey history links in the "Tourism" section of this site.
Eddie Shore and that Old-Time Hockey
A synopsis about a book that covers the hockey career of the legendary Eddie Shore and chronicles the rough and tumble history of the sport. From the website of publisher McClelland & Stewart.
The website for Andrew Podnieks, the author of more than 50 books on the sport of hockey. Also see the gallery of Dennis Miles photos of hockey players and the bios of members of the "Women's Hall of Fame."
Frederick Wellington Taylor
A biography of the historic hockey great Frederick Wellington Taylor. Also offers a photo gallery and career statistics. From the website "Legends of Hockey."
An online feature about Larry Kwong,the first Chinese-Canadian NHL player, who was inducted into the BC Hockey Hall of Fame in 2010. From the gunghaggisfatchoy.com website.
Check out the latest stats and news about hockey star Sidney Crosby from the Pittsburgh Penguins website.
Facebook: Hockey Canada
Join the conversation about hockey programs and events in Canada.
The Hockey News
The website for The Hockey News, which has been reporting the latest news about the world of hockey since 1947.
History of women's hockey
A brief history of women's ice hockey from canoe.ca.
The latest news about women's ice hockey teams in Canada. From hockeycanada.ca.
See a brief history of women's hockey in Canada. From Library and Archives Canada.
Women's Ice Hockey
About the early years of women's ice hockey in Canada. From the birthplaceofhockey.com website.
An Immense Hold in the Public Estimation
A feature article about Manitoba men and women who played hockey in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. From the Manitoba Historical Society.
Creighton Monument Unveiling
An article about a monument and plaque that honours hockey pioneer James George Aylwin Creighton at Ottawa's Beechwood Cemetery. See an copy of a booklet about Creighton, who has been described as the "The Father or Godfather of Organized Hockey." From the Society for International Hockey Research.
An account of J.G.A. Creighton's role in the development of the the game of hockey in Canada. From the birthplaceofhockey.com.
The Memory Project: Hockey
Listen to an interview with Canadian veteran Charles Henri Goulet about his wartime military service (which included playing hockey). Also check out related digitized artefacts and memorabilia. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
The story of baseball in Canada is not only a reminder of a golden age in sport, before it was "all about the money," but of the roads not taken in our North American journey...