Histoire du Canada depuis sa découverte jusqu'à nos jours, a Canadian classic by François-Xavier GARNEAU
, appeared in 4 volumes from 1845-52, tracing French Canada's development from Champlain's voyages of discovery to 1840. A vindication of the French Canadian nation in the face of Lord DURHAM's
assimilationist policies, it was read as a national epic and a monument to "la survivance." Garneau was first among French Canadians to treat history as a science. He was strongly influenced by French historians, taking up their liberal ideals and romantic style, and adopting Augustin Thierry's theory that interracial antagonism is the prime mover of all history. Garneau's evident patriotism and his status as a national hero tempered criticism of his liberal ideas, which included suggestions of clerical mismanagement in the colony's early history. Garneau revised his text for the second and third editions of 1852 and 1859; Andrew Bell's translation (1860) somewhat misrepresents the text. The standard, indexed edition was the eighth (9 volumes, 1944-46).