Beginnings of Life
The simplest living photosynthesizers are Cyanobacteria, which now live in nearly every environment and, in some aquatic habitats, produce stromatolites - mounds composed of layers of sediment. The earliest signs of life are 3.0-3.5 billion year old stromatolites of western Australia, South Africa and the Canadian Shield.
On the shores of Lake Superior, near Kakabeka Falls, stromatolites and the microscopic organisms that grew on them 1.9 billion years ago have been preserved in silica; these organisms compare closely with living Cyanobacteria. Their description, by E.S. Barghoorn and S.A. Tyler in 1965, startled geologists and biologists. Although the presence of life on the early Earth had been hypothesized, proof of its existence had been lacking. These fossils, the first indisputable evidence that life existed at such an unimaginably distant time, initiated investigation of Precambrian (before 544 million years ago) fossils around the world.
Anoxic to Oxic Transition
Throughout most of the Precambrian, Earth was dominated by Cyanobacteria and bacteria. As the free oxygen (O2) released by Cyanobacteria slowly rusted the Earth, producing incidentally the great iron-ore deposits, the chemistry of the global environment was changed from anoxic (without free oxygen), suitable only for anaerobic microbes, to oxic, in which aerobic (oxygen-requiring) organisms could thrive. All familiar plants and animals, including ourselves, are aerobic, and depend upon free oxygen for metabolism. Transition from anoxic to oxic conditions during the Precambrian made possible the evolution of complex plants and animals about one billion years ago.
Evolution then proceeded, fueled by the fires of aerobic metabolism, at a great and seemingly ever-increasing rate. Survival of such ancient organisms as Cyanobacteria is due to their remarkable adaptability in an ever-changing world, and to the ever-present place in the environment for such small and simple life forms. The fossil record of higher algae is poor, except for lime-secreting red algae and green algae. Since Cambrian time, these algae have been important in the construction and cementation of reefs, many such reefs forming natural reservoirs for some of Canada's oil.
First Land Plants
Invasion of land by plants from an aquatic environment occurred late in the Silurian period (441-410 million years ago). Water, of prime importance to living things, is easily available to aquatic organisms, but ancestors to land plants had to develop water-conserving features for survival out of water: cuticle, a waterproof waxy coating; roots or other underground organs for absorbing water; a conducting system for water transport; and watertight reproductive bodies. With life possible on land, a vast, new habitat was available to any algal group overcoming the water barrier. Many must have tried; only 2 succeeded, both evolving from green algae: bryophytes (mosses and liverworts); and vascular plants, with internal woody tissue for support and water movement.
Since the initial colonization of land in the Silurian, no new groups of land plants have evolved from algae. Competition with pre-existing, increasingly well-adapted groups became too severe.
Vascular Plants - Devonian
Vascular plants have been the dominant land vegetation for over 400 million years and have been continually evolving in response to climatic and environmental change. The earliest vascular plants, the rhyniophytes, were small, naked, simply branched, without roots or leaves. They gave rise to 2 groups that flourished in the early Devonian (410-392 million years ago): zosterophylls, usually covered by soft spines; and trimerophytes, tending to complex branching and a shrubby habit. Well-preserved fossils of these early Devonian groups are found at famous fossil plant localities at Gaspé and Chaleur bays (Qué and NB, respectively) and the Abitibi River near James Bay, Ont.
These fossils provide much information about plant structure and evolution. J.W. DAWSON first examined them and recognized their significance. His discovery of these strange, leafless plants was largely ignored; none believed such a world existed. Dawson persevered, however, and is now recognized as the founder of Devonian palaeobotany.
Several new groups of land plants evolved in the middle (392-375 million years ago) to late (375-353 million years ago) Devonian. Zosterophylls gave rise to a once-diverse group of plants that bore leaves that evolved from enlarged spines: CLUB MOSSES and their relatives, including giant scale trees (Lepidodendrales). The trimerophytes, on the other hand, gave rise to a far greater number of descendant groups, all deriving leaves from modified branching systems: HORSETAILS, with whorled appendages; FERNS, with compound leaves; and progymnosperms, woody, free-sporing ancestors to SEED PLANTS. Progymnosperms developed thick, woody stems and formed the first extensive forests, found preserved in late Devonian rocks at Escuminac Bay and Gaspé, Qué; Ghost River area, Alta; Hess Mountains, YT; and Ellesmere Island, NWT.
Carboniferous and Permian
The early Carboniferous differed markedly from the Devonian, as rising sea levels flooded most of the continent. Few fossil plants are known from this time in Canada. As sea levels fell in the late Carboniferous, great swamps developed on old seafloors. Sydney and Pictou coalfields, NS, and Minto coalfield, NB, are legacies of these coal-age swamps. Late Carboniferous fossils from these coalfields, extensively studied by W.A. Bell, reveal a strange world of scale trees (giant club-mosses more than 30 m tall) and calamites (giant horsetails 20 m tall). Calamite twigs, with star-shaped whorls of leaves, are abundant and easily recognized. Cordaites, extinct relatives of conifers, were the only tough, woody plants of the swamps. Ferns and seed ferns, unrelated groups, produced similar types of fernlike foliage. Although the Carboniferous (353-300 million years ago) is often called the "Age of Ferns," many types of fernlike leaves actually bore seeds, and therefore only superficially resembled ferns.
Plants that grew in dry uplands of the Carboniferous were rarely fossilized. True conifers, hardy ferns, cycads, and seed ferns were evolving in these dry areas. The Permian (300-250 million years ago) and Triassic (250-205.7 million years ago) periods brought further lowering of ocean levels, GLACIATION in the Southern Hemisphere, and desert conditions in much of North America. Carboniferous swamp plants became extinct and plants adapted to dry conditions flourished.
Triassic to Cretaceous
Triassic forests of conifers, cycads and cycadeoids (seed fern descendants with stubby trunks and stiff, feather-shaped, compound leaves), ferns and seed ferns are preserved in coal-bearing rocks of Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands. The Age of Conifers and Cycads had begun and continued for over 100 million years, paralleling the Age of Dinosaurs. When ocean levels rose and moisture increased during the Jurassic (205.7-144.2 million years ago) and Cretaceous (144.2-65 million years ago) periods, these plants spread to available habitats. Many early Cretaceous fossils are found in BC and western Alberta coalfields (Dawson Creek, Canmore, Luscar and Grande Cache). In the early Cretaceous (144.2-98.9 million years ago), seed ferns became extinct but, before doing so, gave rise to angiosperms, the flowering plants.
Rise of Angiosperms
The early angiosperms developed advantages over contemporary groups (eg, rapid reproductive cycle), which made them highly efficient plants, well adapted to "weedy" growth. These modifications, including flowers for attraction of insect pollinators, proved advantageous in many habitats. Interaction between plant and pollinator has been a driving force behind the astounding diversification of both flowering plants and insects. Some of the earliest known flowering plants are found in northeastern BC coalfields. Late Cretaceous (98.9-65 million years ago) floras of the Dawson Creek area of BC, and Milk River, Alta, reveal increasing dominance by angiosperms. These fossils, while generally resembling some living angiosperms, represent archaic, extinct families, and their relationships to living groups remain unclear.
At the end of the Cretaceous, the climate cooled, inland seas covering much of western Canada drained, and DINOSAURS became extinct. At the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary is found evidence of extinction among land plants too. During this interval of mass extinction, the Earth was struck by a massive meteorite. Fallout from this impact is preserved in boundary sediments in southern Saskatchewan as a pale clay, rich in rare earth elements such as iridium.
With the dawn of the Tertiary (65-56.5 million years ago), Earth entered the Age of Mammals, and paralleling the rise of mammals is the rise of the "modern" flora, which consists overwhelmingly of flowering plants. Early Tertiary (Palaeocene) fossils, 56.5 to 65 million years old, are found over much of Alberta (eg, Red Deer River, Lake Wabamun coalfields, Robb to Coal Valley coalfields) and southern Saskatchewan (eg, Eastend area to Estevan coalfield), to as far north as Ellesmere Island. These floras reveal a variety of flowering plants, including members of the sycamore, birch and walnut families, but the most abundant fossil plants are the katsuras and the dawn redwood, now native only to southeastern Asia.
During the Eocene epoch (56.5-34 million years ago) of the Early Tertiary, a brief climatic warming coincided with rapid diversification of flowering plants. Eocene fossils in BC (Princeton, Kamloops and Smithers areas) reveal increasing numbers of modern plant families, with extinct species of birch, maple, beech, willow, chestnut, pine and fir.
Exceptionally well-preserved fossil forests found on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands in the Canadian Arctic illustrate clearly the contrast between modern Canadian vegetation and the floras of a much warmer past. These fossil forests, 40 to 60 million years old, consist of large stumps, many over 1 m in diameter, preserved where they grew, still rooted in ancient soil. Thick mats of leafy litter that formed the forest floor reveal the types of plants inhabiting the forests. Lush redwood and cypress swamps covered the lowlands, while the surrounding uplands were dominated by a mixed conifer and hardwood forest resembling that of modern eastern North America. Even accounting for continental drift, these forests grew well above the Arctic Circle, and bear witness to a time in Canada's past when a cold arctic climatic regime did not exist.
Global cooling began in the middle Tertiary, culminating in the glaciation of Canada at the close of the Tertiary about 2 million years ago. Late Tertiary fossil plants are uncommon in southern Canada, but in northern Canada, including Banks, Meighen and Ellesmere islands, peat beds containing spruce, birch, walnut, pine, larch and mosses reveal evolution of Canada's Boreal forests more than 20 million years ago. They also preserve a record of the final elimination of forests from Canada's North at the end of the Tertiary, when continental ice sheets began to grow.
The Pleistocene (1.65 million to 10 000 years ago) glaciation has entirely altered the face of Canada, with the repeated advance and retreat of ice sheets as much as 3 km thick. During interglacial stages, forests returned to colonize the devastated landscape. The well-preserved remains of an interglacial flora are found in the clays exposed in the Don Valley Brickyard of Toronto. The Don flora indicates that during past interglacial stages the climate of Canada has been much milder than that of the interglacial stage in which we now live.
About 10 000 years ago the most recent ice advance ended. Tertiary cooling and glaciation eliminated the old northern forests from Canada. Many plants found refuge in southeastern North America and China, where their descendants still live. Floras in these 2 areas are similar even today. Most modern Canadian plants are recent migrants from unglaciated areas and form quite different assemblages from those of previous ages. The modern world is only the most recent chapter in the long and fascinating history of life. It is fortunate that the rocks of Canada preserve, often in exquisite detail, such a significant part of this history.
Author JAMES BASINGER
Links to Other Sites
The Plant List
Search this online database for information about one million plant species from around the world. Also, click on "major plant groups" at the bottom of the page to browse descriptions of species of interest. Fungi and algae are excluded. From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the UK and the Missouri Botanical Garden in the US.
Royal Ontario Museum
The official website for the Royal Ontario Museum features illustrated guides to many of the museum’s collections and exhibits.
This site unravels the mysteries of trace fossils and highlights Nova Scotia’s unique paleontological sites such as the famous Joggins Fossil Cliffs. Also features loads of fun fossil activities. From the Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History and the Virtual Museum of Canada.
Flora of North America
The FNA website features information on the names, taxonomic relationships, continent-wide distributions, and morphological characteristics of all plants native and naturalized found in North America north of Mexico.
A brief profile of Carl Linnaeus and the binomial naming system he devised for living organisms. From the website for the Linnean Society of London in the UK.
Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants
See online excerpts from the book "Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants" by Wilson N. Stewart and Gar W. Rothwell. From Google Books.
University of Alberta Paleobotanical Collection
The website for the University of Alberta Paleobotanical Collection.