Glenn Gould plays and conducts "Bach Cantata 54." From the Glenn Gould channel on YouTube.
Glenn Gould performed mostly at church and school functions until 1944; later public appearances associated with the Toronto Conservatory of Music and the Kiwanis festivals earned him his first serious attention as a pianist. (He also gave some public performances on the organ until 1948.) He first appeared with orchestra 8 May 1946, in the first movement of Beethoven's Concerto No. 4, with the Toronto Conservatory of Music orchestra conducted by Ettore Mazzoleni; on 14 and 15 Jan 1947 he performed the entire concerto with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra conducted by Bernard Heinze, in a concert for secondary-school pupils.
He gave his professional recital debut 20 Oct 1947 in Eaton Auditorium, marking the start of an association with concert manager Walter Homburger that lasted until 1968. In these early performances he was praised for prodigious technique but also for beauty of tone, subtlety and delicacy of phrasing, a "poetic" temperament, and depth of expression and interpretive wisdom beyond his years.
In his teens Gould performed in various Toronto venues - concert halls as well as the Toronto Conservatory of Music, Hart House, the Art Gallery of Toronto, the Canadian National Exhibition - and occasionally elsewhere in Ontario. He organized an ambitious "Recital of Contemporary Music" at the Royal Conservatory of Music when he was just 18 (4 Jan 1951), and with Robert Fulford, a schoolmate, formed the company New Music Associates, which put on three concerts in Toronto (1952, 1954). He undertook his first Western tour (Vancouver, Calgary) in 1951, and later made debuts in Montreal (1952), Ottawa (1953), the Maritimes (Saint John, NB, 1953), and Winnipeg (1954). He appeared at the inaugural Stratford Festival in 1953. By the time he was 20, the unconventional repertoire characteristic of his adult concerts was established: a little 16th- and 17th-century music, a great deal of Bach, a very select group of Classical and Romantic works, and a generous selection of (mostly Austro-German) 20th-century music, including the complete piano works of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern.
Gould's First Explorations with Technology
Gould made his CBC radio debut on 24 Dec 1950. He played Mozart's Sonata K. 281 and Hindemith's Sonata No. 3 on a piano with a heavy, dark bass, but when he played a recording of the broadcast he found that by suppressing the bass and boosting the treble he could make the piano sound the way he had tried but failed to do in the studio. He realized that through technology he could overcome the piano's limitations and improve upon his original performance. The implications of this realization fundamentally influenced his approach to performing and recording.
Through the early 1950s, he appeared often in solo recitals, chamber music, and concertos on CBC radio (a program on 21 Dec 1953 included the first performance in Canada of Schoenberg's concerto), and he was a featured performer in the first TV program ever broadcast in English Canada (8 Sep 1952).
First Recording Contracts
Mature Career as Pianist - Touring and Concerts
For the next nine years Glenn Gould toured annually throughout North America. Highlights included a "triumphant return" to Massey Hall (16 Apr 1956, at which time he received an award from the City of Toronto), recitals in Carnegie Hall (7 Dec 1957, 13 Feb 1959), the first public performances in Canada of Schoenberg's concerto (6-7 Dec 1960), and appearances with many major orchestras and conductors.
In May 1957 Gould made his European debut with a two-week tour of Moscow and Leningrad - one of the first Canadian cultural ventures into the USSR after the start of the Cold War - followed by performances with the Berlin Philharmonic under Herbert von Karajan and a recital at the Vienna Festival. He returned to Europe the following two summers. In 1958, he appeared at the Salzburg Festival and (with the Hart House Orchestra under Boyd Neel) the Brussels World's Fair; performed in Sweden, Germany, and Italy; and gave 11 performances in 18 days in Israel. In 1959, he gave a recital in Berlin, made his London debut in a Beethoven cycle with the London Symphony Orchestra under Josef Krips, gave two recitals for the BBC, and appeared at the Salzburg and Lucerne Festivals. In 1959, he received the Harriet Cohen Bach Medal.
His wide though highly selective repertoire ranged from Tudor virginalists to living Canadians; it was conspicuously light on early Romantic music. Bach and Schoenberg were central. He championed esoteric and intellectually challenging modern idioms, and advocated obscure works by composers like Bizet, Grieg, Strauss, and Sibelius. He also had a fondness (rare in his day) for playing orchestral and operatic music in transcription. In particular, he offered a dynamic and influential example of the mid-20th-century "high-modernist" approach to the performance of Bach, in which he was most renowned and influential.
His piano style - lean, refined, rhythmically dynamic, structurally explicit, insistently contrapuntal - was more modernistic than Romantic, though it could still be lyrical and deeply expressive in its own way. As an interpreter, however, he was the ultimate Romantic, often tinkering with the performance markings (occasionally even the notes). He sought fresh perspectives on works (especially canonical ones) through extreme tempos, quirky phrasing and ornamentation, and other interpretive experiments. For these he was both praised for originality and condemned for eccentricity.
Some of his most notorious performances were of Brahms's D-minor Concerto with Leonard Bernstein conducting the New York Philharmonic (5, 6, 8 Apr 1962). Bernstein gave a pre-concert talk noting his disagreement with Gould's anti-virtuosic interpretation, which featured unusually slow tempos, departures from Brahms's dynamic and phrase markings, and the highlighting of latent counterpoint and motivic detail.
Gould's florid physical mannerisms and vocalizing at the keyboard, and his battered wooden folding chair, which he used for every concert and recording from 1953, also provoked much comment.
Early Lectures and Other Activities
Glenn Gould had wide-ranging musical and intellectual interests, and never wanted to be limited to the life of a concert pianist. He had ambitions to conduct and compose, and from his late teens demonstrated gifts as a writer on musical subjects. The range of his talents and interests was widely admired, and he sought opportunities to exercise his versatility on his concert tours. When, for instance, he returned to the Stratford Festival 9 Jul 1956, he offered the public premiere of his own String Quartet, performed solo works by Sweelinck, Berg, and Krenek, directed Schoenberg's Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte from the piano, and wrote the program notes.
Gould, the cellist Leonard Rose, and the violinist Oscar Shumsky were artists-in-residence at Stratford in 1960, and served as the festival's co-directors of music 1961-4. Gould also gave concerts and lectures at the Vancouver International Festival (1958, 1960-1), and delivered a dozen lectures 1963-4: Corbett Music Lectures (University of Cincinnati, 22 Apr 1963, 9 Oct 1964), the three inaugural MacMillan Lectures (University of Toronto, Jul 1963; the first repeated at McMaster University, 18 Jul), the series "The History of the Piano Sonata" (Hunter College, NY, 31 Jan, 3 Mar 1964; repeated at Gardiner Museum, Boston, 2 Feb, 8 Mar), a University of Toronto convocation address (1 Jun 1964), and an address to the Royal Conservatory of Music graduating class (11 Nov 1964). (Most have been published.)
Through his concert years, he continued to record prolifically for Columbia, to write and lecture, and to perform on CBC radio and TV.
Increasingly attracted to his work in the electronic and print media, and harbouring many musical, intellectual, and temperamental objections to live performance, he decided to give up the life of a concert pianist to devote himself to recording, broadcasting, composing, and writing. He gave his last live, in-person concert in Los Angeles 10 Apr 1964, though he was at the height of his fame and creative powers.
Broadcasting and Recording Career Post-1964
As Glenn Gould's concert career wound down, his radio and TV work (recitals, documentaries) became more innovative and sophisticated as he explored beyond the limits of the conventional broadcast recital. After 1964, he favoured giving radio and TV recitals that were unified thematically or tied together with his own spoken commentary.
Increasingly, he sought to express himself away from the piano. In 1962, he made his first radio documentary, on Schoenberg; subsequently, he created many programs in which he did not perform but instead explored musical topics that interested him - recording and broadcasting, the "psychology of improvisation," aleatoric music, the Moog synthesizer.
From the later 1960s, his compositional ambitions were channeled into the production of what he called "contrapuntal radio documentaries," evocative tapestries of speech, sound effects, and music that drew on principles and techniques from radio documentary, radio drama, film, and music. The programs known as his "Solitude Trilogy" - The Idea of North (1967); The Latecomers (1969), about Newfoundland; and The Quiet in the Land (1977), about the Mennonites of Manitoba - explored the effects of isolation (geographical, cultural, and religious) on individuals and communities. He also created four major documentaries on musicians: Stokowski (1971), Casals (1974), Schoenberg (1974), and Strauss (1979).
Among the most important TV productions of his later years were a documentary portrait in the series Telescope (1969); his technologically experimental special The Well-Tempered Listener (1970); his series Music in Our Time (1974-7); Glenn Gould's Toronto (1979), for which he won two ACTRA Awards; and, in 1974 and 1979-81, two series (seven films) with the French violinist and filmmaker Bruno Monsaingeon.
Gould produced one album for another performer: Korngold's Sonata No. 2 in E Major, Op. 2, and Fairy Pictures, Op. 3, with pianist Antonin Kubalik (recorded 1973, released 1974, as Genesis GS 1055).
Gould's Beliefs About Recording
Gould believed that his performances were not just readings of pieces of music but documents that reflected his entire world view. He thought (as had creators in the Romantic era) that artists had a "moral mission," and that art had enormous potential for the betterment of human life.
Gould became a leading exponent among classical performers of a true aesthetic of recording, which he passionately defended in articles and broadcasts, and practiced in dozens of albums for Columbia/CBS, developing a hands-on expertise in recording techniques.
A studio performer, he felt, need not be concerned with projecting musical effects into an auditorium for the purpose of catching and holding the attention of an audience; rather, he could subject the music to minute inspection of detail at every structural level. Moreover, he could allow the technology itself - placement of microphones, splicing, overdubbing, reverb, etc. - to influence the interpretation, and could defer many final interpretive decisions to the post-production process.
For Gould, recording had fundamentally altered the traditional relationship of composer, performer, and listener. He justified his interpretive experiments in part by arguing that there was no point in making yet another recording of, say, the Emperor Concerto without offering significant departures from conventional readings already available. Outside popular music, no artist to date has expanded the technological possibilities of recorded music, or explored its aesthetic and even ethical implications, more than did Gould.
Gould the Writer
Gould published dozens of pieces of writing on a wide range of subjects (not all of them musical), including articles, program notes for concerts, liner notes for more than 20 of his albums, lectures, reviews, letters to the editor, and humour. Figuring in the scripts he wrote for his radio, TV, and film productions, the result is an impressive body of writing that, while uneven and often controversial, earned him a reputation as an informed, highly original, and provocative musical thinker. The only Grammy Award he received in his lifetime was for the liner notes to his 1973 album of Hindemith's sonatas.
His Later Lifestyle
Awards and Tributes
Glenn Gould the Composer and Conductor
Gould composed avidly from early childhood, and demonstrated some natural talent for composition, though he had no formal instruction in it. He essayed various tonal, atonal, and twelve-tone idioms, and preferred highly organized, contrapuntal forms. (From age five through his late teens, he occasionally performed his own music in public.) His only major work, a long one-movement String Quartet (1953-5, first performed 21 May 1956 by the Montreal String Quartet, on the CBC's French network), is an idiosyncratic synthesis of idioms including Baroque fugue, Classical sonata form, Strauss's late-Romantic harmony, and Schoenberg's "developing variation."
Gould never realized his plan to devote himself largely to composition after his retirement from concert life; in fact, despite ambitious plans and sketches (chamber and orchestral music, songs, opera), his serious composing effectively ceased after 1964. He did, however, notate or record some of his transcriptions, including three of orchestral music by Wagner, and "my transcription of Ravel's transcription of La Valse."
He arranged music for two feature films: Slaughterhouse-Five (Universal, 1972) and The Wars (Nielsen-Ferns/Torstar, 1982).
As he approached 50, Gould was planning to phase out his career as a recording pianist while fulfilling ambitious plans to make recordings as a conductor. He had done a little conducting before - in some concerts, from the keyboard; on CBC TV, 20 Feb 1957; on CBC radio 26 Sep 1957, when he led the CBC Vancouver Orchestra in symphonies by Mozart and Schubert. He made his first (and only) "official" recording as a conductor in the summer of 1982: Wagner's Siegfried-Idyll.
Retirement Plans; Death
At the time of his death, Glenn Gould enjoyed a reputation as one of the world's premier musicians. Since his death, his international following has greatly expanded, and a thriving cottage industry has grown up around him. Indeed, his remarkable posthumous "life" has few parallels among classical performers.
Glenn Gould Studies
Glenn Gould Archive
Today, searchable databases, as well as a virtual exhibition, private audio recordings, bibliographies, writings, etc. can be accessed though LAC's website. Moreover the LAC main catalogue includes a comprehensive collection of more than 2,000 sources relating to Gould.
The National Library of Canada mounted a major exhibition, Glenn Gould 1988, Apr-Sep 1988; it subsequently travelled to Grande Prairie, Alta; Montreal; Saskatoon; Toronto; Vancouver; and Victoria; as well as Tokyo. A smaller but immensely popular Gould exhibition was shown at the Canadian Cultural Centre in Paris in 1986, and later toured eight other European cities.
Posthumous Releases and Rebroadcasts
During his lifetime, Glenn Gould's prolific work in the media besides concerts and recordings was not readily accessible. As a result many people, for much of his career, knew him only as a pianist. Since 1982, however, his work has become increasingly accessible, and appreciation of the scope of his interests and talents has grown.
Various studio recordings were digitally remastered and rereleased soon after his death by CBS Masterworks, and many live and broadcast performances were released by smaller pirate labels in North America, Europe, and Japan. Finally, Sony Classical released a comprehensive Glenn Gould Edition 1992-7, its eight volumes comprising more than 75 CDs, including many concert and broadcast recordings. CBC Records released eight Gould volumes (11 CDs) 1992-9, including many broadcast performances from the early 1950s.
In all, Gould's recordings - even the most popular of them, like those of the Goldberg Variations - continue to sell in impressive numbers; in fact, he sells better today than he did while he was alive. Gould's radio and TV broadcasts and films have also been revived since his death. In 1987 the CBC began rebroadcasting the bulk of his TV work, edited into 24 half-hour programs entitled Glenn Gould Plays; the series was also shown in Europe. His "contrapuntal radio documentaries" have been rebroadcast by the CBC and abroad, and most have been released by CBC Records. Sony Classical released a generous selection of TV performances 1992-4 in the Glenn Gould Collection, 16 hour-long volumes on videotape and laserdisc. Many other TV programs and films featuring or about Gould have been shown on TV and at festivals, and released commercially, since his death.
Gould's writings have been published in two major English-language collections and in some periodicals, and have been translated into a dozen languages. His compositions, too, have enjoyed a minor revival since his death, receiving performances at Gould events and elsewhere around the world. In 1995, Schott Musik International undertook a comprehensive edition of his compositions and arrangements.
Literature, Societies, Conferences on Gould
The new availability of Glenn Gould's recordings, broadcasts, writings, and compositions inspired a vast periodical literature and dozens of books, in many countries and languages. Today the Gould literature rivals that of classical performers as prominent as Toscanini. It ranges from hagiography to scholarship, biographies to reference books, general appreciations of his achievement to focussed studies of almost every aspect of his life, personality, work, and thought.
Though still dismissed as a mere eccentric in some quarters, he is studied and even revered as an artist and thinker, particularly outside the English-speaking world, in countries like France, Germany, Russia, Israel, and Japan. (Gould himself said, during his concert days, that in Europe critics wrote about his interpretations but at home wrote more about his eccentricities, and in 1980 he noted that his highest per-capita record sales had long been in Japan and German-speaking countries.)
At the CBC, US National Public Radio, the BBC, Japan's NHK, and all of the major European networks, he has been the subject of posthumous portraits and other radio and TV programs.
A Glenn Gould Society based in Groningen, The Netherlands, was founded 1 Oct 1982; it sponsored public events and published a semi-annual Bulletin until 1992. The Glenn Gould Foundation (GGF) was established in Toronto in 1983, and since 1987 has awarded a triennial $50,000 Glenn Gould Prize in Music and Communication. In 1995, the GGF established a Friends of Glenn Gould society with a semi-annual journal, GlennGould.
Interest in Gould has been intense enough to spawn five major conferences tackling Gould's life and work: the Glenn Gould Colloquium, 13-15 Oct 1987, at l'Université du Québec à Montréal; the Glenn Gould Symposium, 13-15 May 1988, in Amsterdam, organized by the Glenn Gould Society; the Glenn Gould Conference in Toronto, 23-27 Sep 1992, organized by the GGF; the Glenn Gould Festival in Groningen, 2-4 Oct 1992, organized by the Society; and the Glenn Gould Gathering, at the Canadian Broadcasting Centre in Toronto, 23-26 Sep 1999, organized by the GGF. In addition, many smaller Gould events have been held in major cities.
Posthumous Tributes and Awards
Glenn Gould has received posthumous tributes of many kinds, starting with election to the Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences' Hall of Fame (1983), Grammy awards (1983, 1984), and Juno awards (1983, 1984). His 1955 Goldberg recording was elected to the National Academy of Recording Arts and Science's Hall of Fame (US, 1983), and the Academy awarded Gould a Lifetime Achievement Award (Grammy) in 2013. There is a Glenn Gould Memorial Scholarship Fund at the University of Toronto and a Glenn Gould Professional School at the Royal Conservatory of Music, and for a time there was an annual Glenn Gould Lecture in New York. There have been college-level courses devoted to him in Canada and the US. There is a Glenn Gould Park in Toronto and a Glenn Gould Crescent in Uxbridge, and the City of Toronto has declared the house in which he grew up (32 Southwood Dr) to be a historic site. Canada Post issued a stamp honouring him in 1999.
He is a popular figure on the Internet, the subject of fan sites, databases, discussion groups (most notably the F_Minor mailing list), and more.
Some tributes have been ironic, most notably the 1985 International Bach Competition, held in Toronto 1-12 May 1985. The competition raised money for the GGF, but was criticized as inappropriate because Gould had strongly objected to competitions and live performing. Similarly, the auditorium at the CBC's Canadian Broadcasting Centre is named Glenn Gould Studio.
At the end of the 20th century, he ranked high on lists of great musicians and great Canadians. When MacLean's named its 100 most important Canadians in history in 1998, he ranked No. 1 among artists, and No. 5 overall. His 1955 Goldberg recording was among the first audio-visual "artifacts" to be inducted into Canada's Masterworks program in 2000, and was named by the magazine Gramophone as one of the ten best recordings of the century.
See also Toronto Feature: The Eaton Auditorium.
Compositions and Other Works Devoted to Gould
Gould has been honoured in works by fellow artists, too. He has inspired several transcriptions of the Goldberg Variations, as well as original compositions by Alexina Louie (O Magnum Mysterium: In Memoriam Glenn Gould, 1982), Christos Hatzis (The Go(u)ldberg Variations, 1992), Art Lewis (Homage to Glenn Gould, 1996), and others. He has inspired works by painters and sculptors, including the exhibition The Idea of North in New York in 1987. A life-sized statue by Ruth Abernethy was unveiled in 1999, and an exhibit by photographer Don Hunstein, The Hunstein Variations: A Photographic Record of Glenn Gould 1957-1999, has toured widely.
Many choreographers have created dances inspired by Gould's image and personality or using his recordings. A book of Gould-inspired poems, Northern Music, appeared in 2001. He has been featured in short stories by writers including Joy Williams, Lydia Davis, and Joyce Carol Oates, and in novels by Thomas Bernhard (Der Untergeher, 1983), Thomas Harris (The Silence of the Lambs, 1988), Richard Powers (The Gold Bug Variations, 1991), Joe Fiorito (The Song Beneath the Ice, 2002), and others. He inspired The Maestro, a novel for young people by Tim Wynne-Jones, and Anne Chislett's children's play Not Quite the Same.
There have been dramatic works based on Gould in several countries; the most important, David Young's play Glenn, had its premiere in Toronto in 1992, played at the Stratford Festival in 1999, and has been produced overseas in translation. François Girard's acclaimed feature film Thirty-Two Short Films About Glenn Gould (Rhombus Media, 1993) includes interviews with those who knew Gould.
Opinions About Glenn Gould
Not surprisingly, one encounters a wide range of opinions about Glenn Gould. Despite his relatively short concert career and 20-year truancy from the concert hall, and despite the absence from his repertoire of such mainstream piano composers as Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt, Debussy, Bartók, and Stravinsky, he is widely considered one of the greatest (and certainly most original and idiosyncratic) pianists of the 20th century, particularly in the music of Bach and of Gould's favourite 20th-century composers. He counted among his admirers many great performers, conductors, and composers of his day.
On the other hand, many musicians, critics, and listeners have dismissed him vehemently. His musical interpretations and public pronouncements provoked considerable enmity, and some perceived him as a threat to many accepted views. Some consider him to have been not merely eccentric but perhaps mentally ill. (Some writers have speculated that he suffered from Asperger's Syndrome, a mild form of autism that is compatible with high achievement.) The controversies continue, though he provokes less outrage today, and his place in the pianistic pantheon seems to be solidifying. Moreover, he has crept into the popular culture to a degree few classical musicians have.
Many pianists have acknowledged a debt to Gould's lean, refined, structurally explicit, contrapuntal style, and to the creative freedom he demanded as an interpreter. His example encouraged later pianists to explore outside the standard piano repertoire.
He had some impact away from the piano, too. His writings on the electronic media remain relevant, in some cases visionary. Current thought on the premises, possibilities, and ethics of recording is much indebted to him. His radio-documentary style spawned imitators, and his nuanced championship of the music of Richard Strauss in the 1950s-60s, though it met with derision, is now recognized as prescient.
Decades after his death, Gould continues to entertain and fascinate, challenge and provoke, as both personality and artist. The very uniqueness that continues to attract new fans will probably limit his influence, since he was too idiosyncratic to breed imitators or found a "school." It does however seem likely that he will remain a major presence in classical music. Certainly, he has proved to be one of the most important cultural figures Canada has produced.
A Merry Thought, piano (1941; GlennGould, Fall 2003, 65-7) [earliest surviving composition]. MS: The Glenn Gould Foundation (Toronto)
Rondo in D Major, piano (1948)
Sonata for Piano (ca. 1948-50; Schott 2003). Recordings: Emile Naoumoff, Glenn Gould: The Composer; Vestard Shimkus, bonus CD in Kevin Bazzana, Glenn Gould: Die Biografie (Schott 2006).
Suite of four pieces for a Malvern Collegiate production of Twelfth Night (1949): "Nocturne," "Whimsical Nonsense," "Elizabethan Gaiety," "Regal Atmosphere." MS lost. Private recording: Gould, ca. 1949 (Gould estate)
Sonata for Bassoon and Piano (1950; Schott 1996). Private recording: Nicholas Kilburn and Gould, possibly from 4 Jan 1951 Royal Conservatory of Music concert (Gould estate). Recording: Catherine Marchese, bassoon, and Emile Naoumoff, Glenn Gould: The Composer
Klavierstücke (Schott 1995), comprising 5 Short Piano Pieces (1950) and Two Pieces (1951-2). Private recording, 5 Short Piano Pieces: Gould, possibly from 4 Jan 1951 Royal Conservatory of Music concert (Gould estate). Recording, Two Pieces: Emile Naoumoff, Glenn Gould: The Composer. Recording, 5 Short Piano Pieces and Two Pieces: Vestard Shimkus, bonus CD in Kevin Bazzana, Glenn Gould: Die Biografie (Schott 2006).
Prelude, Cantilena and Gigue, clarinet and bassoon (1951; excerpts in GlennGould, Spring 2003, 3-5). MS: Royal Conservatory of Music
Beethoven, Concerto No. 1, cadenzas to first and third movements (1954; Barger and Barclay 1958). Recordings: Glenn Gould (1958, Columbia), Glenn Gould Edition; Lars Vogt (1995, EMI)
String Quartet (1953-5; Barger and Barclay 1956, Schott 1999). Recordings: Montreal String Quartet (1956, RCI); Symphonia String Quartet (1960, Columbia), Glenn Gould Edition; quartet led by Bruno Monsaingeon (1990, Sony Classical), Glenn Gould: The Composer; Bruxellensis String Quartet (2003, Kalidisc)
So You Want to Write a Fugue?, 4-part chorus with string quartet or piano (1963; Schirmer 1964). Recordings: Vladimir Golschmann conducting the Juilliard String Quartet and soloists (1963, Columbia), originally released as an insert in High Fidelity, April 1964, later in The Glenn Gould Silver Jubilee Album (LP CBS 1980, CD Sony Classical 1998), finally in the Glenn Gould Edition; Nicolas Rivenq conducting a quartet led by Bruno Monsaingeon and soloists (1990, Sony Classical), Glenn Gould: The Composer
"Lieberson Madrigal," four solo voices or mixed choir with piano (1964; Schott 1997). Private recording: Gould, et. al., 1964 (Library and Archives Canada, Glenn Gould Archive). Recording: Nicolas Rivenq conducting soloists with piano (1990, Sony Classical), Glenn Gould: The Composer
Arr. of the Prelude to Handel's Suite for Harpsichord No. 1 in A Major (1972; GlennGould, Spring 1996, 17-23). Recording: Glenn Gould (1972, Columbia), Glenn Gould Edition
Wagner, three transcriptions, piano (1972-3): Siegfried-Idyll (Schott 2003), Prelude to Act I of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (Schott 2003), "Dawn" and "Siegfried's Rhine Journey" from Götterdämmerung (Schott 2003). Recordings: Glenn Gould (1973, CBS), Glenn Gould Edition. Recording, Siegfried-Idyll: Vestard Shimkus, bonus CD in Kevin Bazzana, Glenn Gould: Die Biografie (Schott 2006).
Ravel, La Valse, arr. of Ravel's solo-piano transcription (1975; excerpts in GlennGould, Fall 2002, 64-8). Recording: Glenn Gould (1975, CBC TV), Glenn Gould Edition, Glenn Gould Collection.
With the exception of the first two entries, all recordings were made for Columbia (from 1973, CBS) Masterworks.
Dates of recording and release are given in parentheses and separated by a slash (eg, "(1959-60/1961)").
Gould's albums were released in mono sound only up to the summer of 1958, in both mono and stereo formats from then until 1967, and in stereo thereafter; he made his first digital recordings (Haydn) in 1980.
Albums marked with an asterisk included Gould's own liner notes; publication details are given only for those notes not reprinted in The Glenn Gould Reader.
Berg, Sonata, Op. 1; transcriptions for violin and piano of Prokofiev's "The Winter Fairy" (from Cinderella, Op. 87), Shostakovich's Three Fantastic Dances, Op. 5, and Taneyev's "The Birth of the Harp" (from 10 Romances from Ellis's Immortelles, Op. 26)with Albert Pratz, violin. Hallmark RS3 (recorded and released 1953). LP: The Young Glenn Gould: In Memoriam, 1932-1982, Vol. 1 (Turnabout (Canada) and Vox Cum Laude (USA), 1982). CD: The Young Glenn Gould (Fanfare, 1987); The Young Glenn Gould, 1947-1953 (Mastersound, 1993); Glenn Gould: His First Recordings (1947-1953) (VAI Audio, 2001). Liner notes: GlennGould, Fall 2002, 61-2.
3 transcription discs for Radio Canada International: Bach, Partita No. 5 in G Major, and Morawetz, Fantasy in D (Programme 120, 1954); Gould, String Quartet, with the Montreal String Quartet (Programme 142, 1956); Brahms, Piano Quintet in F Minor, with the Montreal String Quartet (Programme 140, 1957). CD: Bach, CBC Records (1993); Brahms, Glenn Gould Edition
Bach, Goldberg Variations (1955/1956)
Beethoven, Sonatas in E Major, Op. 109; A-flat Major, Op. 110; and C Minor, Op. 111 (1956/1956)
Bach, Concerto No. 1 in D Minor; Beethoven, Concerto No. 2 in B-flat Major - with Leonard Bernstein, Columbia Symphony Orchestra (1957/1957)
Bach, Partitas Nos. 5 in G Major and 6 in E Minor; and Fugues Nos. 14 in F-sharp Minor and 9 in E Major from Book 2 of The Well-Tempered Clavier (1956-57/1957)
Haydn, Sonata No. 59 in E-flat Major; Mozart, Sonata in C Major, K. 330; Mozart, Fantasia and Fugue in C Major, K. 394 (1958/1958)
Bach, Concerto No. 5 in F Minor; Beethoven, Concerto No. 1 in C Major - with Vladimir Golschmann, Columbia Symphony Orchestra (1958/1958)
Berg, Sonata, Op. 1; Krenek, Sonata No. 3, Op. 92/No. 4; Schoenberg, 3 Piano Pieces, Op. 11; (1958/1959)
Beethoven, Concerto No. 3 in C Minor - with Leonard Bernstein, Columbia Symphony Orchestra (1959/1960)
Bach, Partitas Nos. 1 in B-flat Major and 2 in C Minor; Italian Concerto (1959/1960)
Gould, String Quartet, Op. 1 - Symphonia String Quartet (1960/1960)
Brahms, 10 Intermezzi (1959-60/1961)
Beethoven, Concerto No. 4 in G Major - with Leonard Bernstein, New York Philharmonic (1961/1961)
Strauss, Enoch Arden - with Claude Rains, speaker (1961/1962)
Bach, The Art of Fugue, Vol. 1: Contrapunctus 1-9 - on the organ (1962/1962)
Mozart, Concerto No. 24 in C Minor, K. 491 - with Walter Susskind, CBC Symphony Orchestra; Schoenberg, Piano Concerto - with Robert Craft, CBC Symphony Orchestra (1961/1962)
Bach, The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, in 3 volumes (1962-65/1963, 1964, and 1965)
Bach, Partitas Nos. 3 in A Minor and 4 in D Major; Toccata in E Minor (1962-63/1963)
Bach, 6 Partitas (rereleased 1963). Liner notes: GlennGould, Fall 1998, 47-55
Bach, 2- and 3-Part Inventions (1964/1964)
Beethoven, Sonatas, Op. 10/Nos. 1-3 (1964/1965)
Beethoven, Concerto No. 5 in E-flat Major ("Emperor")with Leopold Stokowski, American Symphony Orchestra (1966/1966)
Schoenberg: The Complete Music for Solo Piano: Opp. 11, 19, 23, 25, and 33 (1958, 1964-65/1966)
Schoenberg: Complete Songs for Voice and Piano, Vol. 1: Opp. 1 (with Donald Gramm, bass-baritone) and 2 (with Ellen Faull, soprano); and 15, Das Buch der hängenden Gärten (with Helen Vanni, mezzo-soprano) (1964-65/1966)
Beethoven, Sonatas, Opp. 13 (Pathétique) and 14/Nos. 1 and 2 (1966/1967)
Bach, Concertos, Vol. 1: Nos. 3 in D Major, 5 in F Minor, and 7 in G Minor - with Vladimir Golschmann, Columbia Symphony Orchestra (1958, 1967/1967)
Canadian Music in the 20th Century: Morawetz, Fantasy in D; Anhalt, Fantasia; and Hétu, Variations pour piano (1966-67/1967)
Schoenberg, Ode to Napoleon (with John Horton, narrator, and the Juilliard String Quartet) and Phantasy for Violin and Piano (with Israel Baker) (1964-65/1967). Liner notes: The Art of Glenn Gould, 326-9
Beethoven-Liszt, Symphony No. 5 (1967-68/1968)
Mozart, Sonatas, Vol. 1: K. 279 through 283 (1967/1968)
Bach, The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2, in 3 volumes (1966-67, 1969, 1971/1968, 1970, and 1971)
Prokofiev, Sonata No. 7; Scriabin, Sonata No. 3 (1967-68/1969)
Mozart, Sonatas, Vol. 2: K. 284, 309, and 311 (1968/1969)
Bach, Concertos, Vol. 2: Nos. 2 in E Major and 4 in A Major - with Vladimir Golschmann, Columbia SO (1969/1969)
Schumann, Piano Quartet in E-flat Major - with the Juilliard String Quartet (1968/1969)
Beethoven, Sonatas, Opp. 13 (Pathétique), 27/No. 2 ("Moonlight"), and 57 ("Appassionata") (1966-67/1970)
Beethoven, Variations, WoO 80 and Opp. 34 and 35 ("Eroica") (1960, 1966-67/1970)
A Consort of Musicke Bye William Byrde and Orlando Gibbons (1967-68, 1971/1971)
Mozart, Sonatas, Vol. 3: K. 310, 330, 332, and 333 (1965-66, 1969-70/1972)
Schoenberg: Complete Songs for Voice and Piano, Opp. 3, 6, 12, 14, and 48, and Op. posth. (with Donald Gramm, Helen Vanni, and Cornelis Opthof, baritone) (1964-65, 1968, 1970-71/1972)
Handel, Suites, Nos. 1-4 - on the harpsichord (1972/1972)
Grieg, Sonata in E Minor; Bizet, Premier Nocturne and Variations chromatiques (1971-72/1973)
Bach, French Suites, Nos. 1-4 (1972-73/1973)
Beethoven, Sonatas, Op. 31/Nos. 1, 2 ("Tempest"), and 3 (1960, 1967, 1971/1973)
Hindemith, Sonatas, Nos. 1-3 (1966-67, 1972-73/1973)
Wagner-Gould, Prelude to Die Meistersinger; "Dawn" and "Siegfried's Rhine Journey" from Götterdämmerung; and Siegfried-Idyll. (1973/1973). Liner notes: GlennGould, Fall 1996, 51-55; reprinted The Art of Glenn Gould, 299-310
Mozart, Sonatas, Vol. 4: K. 331 and 545; K. 533, with Rondo, K. 494; Fantasia in D Minor, K. 397 (1965, 1967, 1970, 1972-73/1973)
Bach, French Suites, Nos. 5 and 6; French Overture in B Minor (1971, 1973/1974)
Bach, 3 Viola da Gamba Sonatas - with Leonard Rose, cello (1973-74/1974)
Beethoven, Bagatelles, Opp. 33 and 126 (1974/1975)
Mozart, Sonatas, Vol. 5: K. 457, 570, and 576; Fantasia in C Minor, K. 475 (1966, 1970, 1973-74/1975)
Hindemith: The Complete Sonatas for Brass and Piano - with the Philadelphia Brass Ensemble (Mason Jones, horn and alto horn; Abe Torchinsky, bass tuba; Gilbert Johnson, trumpet; and Henry Charles Smith, trombone) (1975-76/1976)
Bach, 6 Violin Sonatas - with Jaime Laredo (1975-76/1976)
Sibelius, 3 Sonatines, Op. 67; Kyllikki (1976-77/1977)
Bach, 6 English Suites (1971, 1973-76/1977)
Hindemith, Das Marienleben, original 1923 version - with Roxolana Roslak, soprano (1976-77/1978)
Mozart, Sonatas, complete (rereleased 1979)
Bach, 7 Toccatas, in 2 volumes (1963, 1976, 1979/1979, 1980)
Bach, Preludes, Fughettas, and Fugues (1979-80/1980)
Beethoven, Sonatas, Opp. 2/Nos. 1-3 and 28 ("Pastoral") (1974, 1976, 1979/1980)
The Glenn Gould Silver Jubilee Album (released 1980), comprising: Scarlatti, Sonatas, L. 463 in D Major, L. 413 in D Minor, and L. 486 in G Major (recorded 1968); C. P. E. Bach, Würtemberg Sonata No. 1 in A Minor (1968); Gould, So You Want to Write a Fugue? (1963); Scriabin, 2 Pieces, Op. 57 (1972); Strauss, Ophelia-Lieder, with Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, soprano (1966); Beethoven-Liszt, Pastoral Symphony, first movement (1968); and A Glenn Gould Fantasy (humorous self-interview, 1980). CD (incl. liner notes): Sony Classical, 1998
Haydn: The Last Six Sonatas, Nos. 56 and 58-62 (1980-81/1982)
Bach, Goldberg Variations (1981/1982)
Brahms, Ballades, Op. 10; Rhapsodies, Op. 79 (1982/1983)
Beethoven, Sonatas, Opp. 26 and 27/No. 1 (1979, 1981/1983)
Strauss, Sonata in B Minor, Op. 5; Five Piano Pieces, Op. 3 (1979, 1982/1984)
Scriabin, Sonata No. 5 (1970/1986)
Pentland, Shadows/Ombres (1967/1992)
Beethoven, Sonata in F-sharp Major, Op. 78 (1968/1993)
Wagner, Siegfried-Idyll - with a pick-up chamber orch. cond. Gould (1982/1994)
Bach, Concerto in D Minor after Marcello; 2 fugues on themes by Albinoni; Aria variata alla maniera italiana; Chromatic Fantasy in D Minor; 3 fantasies; Prelude and Fugue in B-flat Major on BACH (1971, 1979-80/1997)
Bach, Italian Concerto (recorded 1981). CD: Sony Classical, with The Glenn Gould Silver Jubilee Album (1998)
Glenn Gould Edition (1992-7), 8 vol, Sony Classical. This edition comprises rereleases of the Columbia/CBS recordings, along with some previously unreleased studio recordings and selected broadcast and live performances.
Sony Classical has released several additional CDs: concerts in Salzburg and New York (see "Concert performances"), and The Glenn Gould Silver Jubilee Album (1998).
In addition, CBS Masterworks/Sony Classical rereleased many recordings before and after the Glenn Gould Edition, single CDs as well as thematic compilations and series, including: The Glenn Gould Legacy (4 vols., 1984-6), Glenn Gould: Bach (6 vols., 1984-7), Glenn Gould: Images (1995), Glenn Gould at the Cinema (1999), Glenn Gould Plays Bach: Original Jacket Collection (1999), A Portrait of Glenn: Music from the Play Glenn (1999), The Gould Variations: The Best of Glenn Gould's Bach (2000), Glenn Gould Anniversary Edition (2001-2), Glenn Gould: A State of Wonder (2002), Glenn Gould: ... And Serenity (2003), and Glenn Gould: The 1955 Goldberg Variations: Birth of a Legend (2005).
Some recordings of important concert performances appear in the Glenn Gould Collection (video and laserdisc, Sony Classical) and Glenn Gould Edition (sound recordings, Sony Classical), and in live broadcasts (1951-5) released by CBC Records.
Sony Classical released two CDs of concert performances: recital, Salzburg Festival, 25 Aug 1959 (Festispieldokumente, 1994); and Brahms, Concerto No. 1, with Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic 6 Apr 1962, along with an excerpt from a related 1963 NY radio interview (1998).
Other authorized releases of live performances: the Brahms concerto (Historic Brahms, New York Philharmonic Historic Recordings, Vol. 7, "WQXR 1987 Radiothon Special Edition," 1987); a lecture-recital at the Moscow Conservatory, 12 May 1957 (Glenn Gould: Concert de Moscou, Harmonia Mundi/Le Chant du Monde, 1983); concert and radio performances in Stockholm, 30 Sep, 1, 5, and 6 Oct 1958 (Glenn Gould in Stockholm, 1958, BIS, 1986).
Selected CBC Radio Programs
The list that follows includes Glenn Gould's most important documentaries and series and some other programs, though not the dozens of solo, chamber-music, and orchestral concerts he gave on CBC radio 1950-1975.
Arnold Schoenberg: The Man Who Changed Music (CBC Wednesday Night, 8 Aug 1962)
Dialogues on the Prospects of Recordings (CBC Sunday Night, 10 Jan 1965). Text: Glenn Gould Reader
The Art of Glenn Gould (series of 24 weekly programs, 13 Nov 1966 to 30 Apr 1967)
The Psychology of Improvisation (Ideas, 23 Nov 1966). Text: GlennGould, Fall 2002, 47-52
The Search for "Pet" Clark (The Best of Ideas, 11 Dec 1967). Text: Glenn Gould Reader
The Idea of North (Ideas, 28 Dec 1967; rev. version CBC Tuesday Night, 26 Mar 1968). LP: CBC Learning Systems T-56997-56998 (1971); liner notes in Glenn Gould Reader. CD: CBC Records (1992)
Anti-Alea: A Study in Objections (Ideas, 20 May 1968)
On the Moog Synthesizer (Sunday Supplement, 10 Nov 1968) Audiotape: CBC Learning Systems 326 (1973)
The Art of Glenn Gould (series of 21 weekly programs, 18 May to 5 Oct 1969). Some texts in The Art of Glenn Gould
The Latecomers (Ideas, 12 Nov 1969). LP: CBC Learning Systems T-56999-57000 (1971); liner notes in Glenn Gould Reader. CD: CBC Records (1992)
Short documentary on music in the 1960s (CBC Thursday Music, 23 July 1970). Text: The Art of Glenn Gould, 279-85
Stokowski: A Portrait for Radio (CBC Tuesday Night, 2 Feb 1971). CD: Private issue, co-production of The Glenn Gould Foundation (Toronto), Sony Classical, and CBC Records (1999); CBC Records (2002)
Humorous documentary on competitive sport (The Scene, 7 Oct 1972). Text: GlennGould, Spring 2003, 7-20
Casals: A Portrait for Radio (CBC Tuesday Night, 15 Jan 1974). CD: Private issue, co-production of The Glenn Gould Foundation (Toronto), Sony Classical, and CBC Records (1999); CBC Records (2002)
Schoenberg series (10 weekly programs, Music of Today, 11 Sep to 13 Nov 1974). Texts: La série Schönberg (see "Writings"); GlennGould, Spring 2004, 5-42, and Fall 2004, 55-96
Schoenberg: The First Hundred Years - A Documentary Fantasy (CBC Tuesday Night, 19 Nov 1974). Documentary on Ernst Krenek, for the BBC series Music Weekly (completed Dec 1975 but never aired)
The Quiet in the Land (Ideas, 25 March 1977). CD: CBC Records (1992)
August Arts National (22-26 Aug 1977), Gould as host/commentator. Some texts in The Art of Glenn Gould
The Bourgeois Hero [on Strauss] (Mostly Music, in two parts: 2, 9 Apr 1979)
Booktime (Dec 1981), Gould reads from and comments on Natsume Soseki's novel The Three-Cornered World [last CBC radio appearance]
CBC Records released 6 CDs (1993-9) of performances from Gould's CBC radio and TV recitals 1951-5, while some of the most important broadcast performances after 1955 were included in the Glenn Gould Edition (Sony Classical) and Glenn Gould Collection (video and laserdisc, Sony Classical). Some radio and TV performances have also appeared on pirate CDs.
Among Gould's radio programs were performances of works that he did not "officially" record for Columbia/CBS but that were released by CBC Records (broadcasts up to 1955) or in the Glenn Gould Edition (after 1955). They include: Bach, several fugues from The Art of Fugue (from a broadcast of 1967); Beethoven, Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 7, second movement (1952); Beethoven, Sonata in G Minor, Op. 49/No. 1 (1952); Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 101 (1952); Beethoven, "Hammerklavier" Sonata, Op. 106 (1970); Beethoven-Liszt, Symphony No. 6 (Pastoral), complete (1968); Chopin, Sonata No. 3 in B Minor (1970); Mendelssohn, 5 Songs without Words (1970); Valen, Sonata No. 2 (1972); and Webern, Variations, Op. 27 (1954).
Several radio performances of other such works have been released only by pirate labels, including Mozart, Fantasia in C Minor, K. 396 (1970); and Weber, Konzertstück in F Minor, with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra under Sir Ernest MacMillan (live broadcast, 1951).
Also among Gould's radio performances are significant alternative readings of some works he did "officially" record; for a list, see Bazzana, Kevin, Glenn Gould: The Performer in the Work, 47.
Summer Festivals, 18 Jul 1954 [broadcast from Stratford]: Beethoven chamber music; Alexander Schneider, violin, and Zara Nelsova, cello
L'Heure du concert, 30 Sep 1954: Beethoven, Concerto No. 4, first movement; CBC Symphony Orchestra cond. Désiré Defauw
L'Heure du concert, 16 Dec 1954: Beethoven, Concerto No. 1, first movement; CBC Symphony Orchestra cond. Paul Scherman [earliest surviving footage of Gould in performance]
Chrysler Festival, 20 Feb 1957: Bach, Partita No. 5 in G Major, and Gould cond. "Urlicht" from Mahler's Symphony No. 2, with Maureen Forrester, contralto
L'Heure du concert, 22 Oct 1957: Bach, Concerto No. 1; Ottawa Philharmonic, cond. Thomas Mayer
Récital, 11 Oct 1960: Beethoven, Brahms, Sweelinck
The Subject is Beethoven (Festival 61, 6 Feb 1961), Gould as performer/commentator; Leonard Rose, cello. Text: The Art of Glenn Gould, 123-7
Music in the USSR (Sunday Concert, 14 Jan 1962), Gould as performer/commentator; Symphonia Quartet
Glenn Gould on Bach (Sunday Concert, 8 Apr 1962), Gould as performer/commentator; Oscar Shumsky, violin, Julius Baker, flute, and Russell Oberlin, countertenor. Text: The Art of Glenn Gould, 95-102
Richard Strauss: A Personal View (Festival, 15 Oct 1962), Gould as performer/commentator; Lois Marshall, soprano, and Oscar Shumsky, violin
The Anatomy of Fugue (Festival, 4 Mar 1963), Gould as performer/commentator; incl. premiere of his So You Want to Write a Fugue?; various guest performers
Concerti for Four Wednesdays, Program No. 1, "Anthology of Variation" (Festival, 3 Jun 1964), Gould as performer/commentator; Bach, Beethoven, Sweelinck, Webern
Conversations with Glenn Gould, with Humphrey Burton, in 4 parts: "Bach," "Beethoven," "Strauss," and "Schoenberg" (CBC-BBC co-production, 15 and 22 March, 5 and 19 April 1966). Part 1 rebroadcast on CBC TV as To Every Man His Own Bach (Festival, 29 Mar 1967). Texts: Parts 1-3, in German, as "Gespräche mit Glenn Gould," Neue Zeitschrift für Musik: "Über Bach und Schallplatenaufnahmen," Feb 1973, 74-9; "Richard Strauss," Jun 1973, 357-63; "Beethoven-Interpretation," Oct 1973, 634-6
Duo (Festival, 18 May 1966), with Yehudi Menuhin, violin; Gould as performer and in conversation with Menuhin; Bach, Beethoven, Schoenberg. Text: The Art of Glenn Gould, 286-91
Music for a Sunday Afternoon, 19 Mar 1967: Beethoven, Mozart
Centennial Performance, 15 Nov 1967: Bach, Concerto No. 7, and Strauss, Burleske; Toronto Symphony Orchestra, cond. Vladimir Golschmann [Gould's first colour telecast]
The World of Music, 4 Feb to 17 Mar 1968: Gould as host/commentator for 6 weekly programs. Some texts in The Art of Glenn Gould
How Mozart Became a Bad Composer (for the NET series PBL, Apr 1968), Gould as performer/commentator
Spheres, animated film dir. René Jodoin and Norman McLaren, with Gould playing music by Bach (National Film Board of Canada, 1969). VHS and DVD: NFB
Variations on Glenn Gould (Telescope, 8 May 1969), documentary portrait
The Well-Tempered Listener, with Curtis W. Davis (CBC-NET co-production, The World of Music, 18 Feb 1970), Gould as performer and in conversation with Davis. Text: Glenn Gould: Variations, 275-94
The Idea of North, prod. and dir. Judith Pearlman, based on the radio documentary (CBC-NET co-production, 5 Aug 1970)
Glenn Gould Plays Beethoven (Beethoven Bi-Centennial Concert, 9 Dec 1970): incl. Op. 34 variations and "Emperor" Concerto; Toronto Symphony Orchestra, cond. Karel Ancerl
Music in Our Time, set of four programs for the series Musicamera: "The Age of Ecstasy: 1900-1910" (20 Feb 1974); "The Flight from Order: 1910-1920" (5 Feb 1975); "New Faces, Old Forms: 1920-1930" (26 Nov 1975); "The Artist as Artisan: 1930-1940" (14 Dec 1977), Gould as performer/commentator. Texts: GlennGould, Spring 2005, 7-29
Glenn Gould, set of four films for the French television (ORTF) series Chemins de la musique, "a film by Bruno Monsaingeon," dir. Francois-Louis Ribadeau: "La Retraite," "L'Alchimiste," "Glenn Gould 1974," and "6e Partita de J-S Bach" (30 Nov and 7, 14, and 21 Dec 1974), Gould as performer and in conversation with Monsaingeon. VHS: INA/Éditions du Léonard, 1974. DVD (as The Alchemist, with "The Piano Revealed on Film: Trials with Glenn Gould"): EMI Classics, 2002
Radio as Music (produced privately by Gould, 29 Aug 1975), videotape on Gould's studio techniques in his "contrapuntal radio documentaries," created for the International Exhibition of Music for Broadcasting, Toronto (Sep 1975)
Glenn Gould's Toronto, dir. John McGreevy, for his series Cities (John McGreevy Productions/Nielsen-Ferns co-production, 27 Sep 1979), Gould as writer/on-camera narrator. Text: Cities, ed. John McGreevy (Toronto, 1981), 86-107; reprinted Glenn Gould: Variations, 85-92, and Glenn Gould Reader, 410-16
Glenn Gould Plays Bach, series of 3 films dir. Bruno Monsaingeon: The Question of Instrument (CBC-Clasart co-production, 1979); An Art of the Fugue (CBC-Clasart co-production, 1980); The Goldberg Variations (Clasart, 1981), Gould as performer and in conversation with Monsaingeon. VHS/laserdisc: Glenn Gould Collection. DVD, Goldberg only: Sony Classical, 2000.
Among Gould's TV programs were performances of works that he did not "officially" record for Columbia/CBS but that were released by CBC Records (telecasts up to 1955) or in the Glenn Gould Collection (Sony Classical) and/or Glenn Gould Edition (Sony Classical) (after 1955). They include: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major and Cantata No. 54, Widerstehe doch der Sünde, with Russell Oberlin, countertenor (both from a telecast of 1962); Beethoven, Cello Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, with Leonard Rose (1961); Beethoven, Violin Sonata in G Major, Op. 96, with Yehudi Menuhin (1966); Beethoven, Allegretto in B-flat Major, WoO 39, and "Ghost" Trio in D Major, Op. 70/No. 1, with Alexander Schneider, violin, and Zara Nelsova, cello (1954); Casella, Due ricercari sul nome BACH, No. 1 (1977); Debussy, Première rhapsodie, with James Campbell, clarinet (1974); Krenek, Wanderlied im Herbst, Op. 71, with Patricia Rideout, soprano (1977); Poulenc, excerpts from Aubade, cond. Boris Brott (1975); Prokofiev, Visions fugitives, Op. 22/No. 2 (1975); Ravel-Gould, La Valse (1975); Schoenberg, excerpts from Pierrot lunaire, with Patricia Rideout, soprano, and Gould cond. from the piano (1975); Scriabin, several preludes and other short pieces (1974); Shostakovich, excerpts from Piano Quintet in G Minor, Op. 57, with the Symphonia String Quartet (1962); Strauss, "Beim Schlafengehen," from the Four Last Songs, and "Cäcilie," Op. 27/No. 2, with Lois Marshall, soprano (1962); Strauss, Burleske, with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra cond. Vladimir Golschmann (1967); Strauss, Suite from Le bourgeois gentilhomme, cond. Oscar Shumsky (1962); Strauss, Violin Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 18, first movement, with Oscar Shumsky (1962); Sweelinck, "Fitzwilliam" Fantasia in G (1964); Webern, Concerto, Op. 24, cond. Boris Brott (1977); Webern, Variations, Op. 27 (1964).
Also among Gould's TV performances are significant alternative readings of some works he did "officially" record; for a list, see Bazzana, Glenn Gould: The Performer in the Work, 47.
TV documentaries about Glenn Gould
Glenn Gould: Off the Record and Glenn Gould: On the Record, prod. and dir. Roman Kroitor and Wolf Koenig (National Film Board of Canada, Candid Eye, 1960). VHS: NFB, 1994. DVD: NFB, 1999; Image Entertainment, 2004
Glenn Gould: A Portrait (CBC, 1985). VHS: Kultur Video, 1991
Les Variacions Gould, dir. Manuel Huerga (Ovideo TV/La Sept/Televisió de Catalunya, 1992). Glenn Gould: Extasis (Radio-Canada, 1998). VHS, DVD: Kultur Video, The Glenn Gould Collection, 2003
Glenn Gould: The Shadow Genius, prod. and dir. David Langer (CBC, Life and Times, 1998). VHS: CBC (Canada) and Kultur Video (USA), 1998. VHS, DVD: Kultur Video, The Glenn Gould Collection, 2003. Glenn Gould: The Russian Journey, dir. Yosif Feyginberg (DocuTainment Plus Productions, et. al., 2002). DVD: CBC Home Video (Canada), Kultur Video (USA), 2002. VHS, DVD: Kultur Video, The Glenn Gould Collection, 2003
Glenn Gould: au-delà du temps (Glenn Gould Hereafter), dir. Bruno Monsaingeon (Idéale Audience/ARTE France/Rhombus Media/BBC, 2005) DVD: Idéale Audience, 2006.
Feature films about Glenn Gould
Thirty Two Short Films About Glenn Gould, directed by François Girard (Rhombus Media, 1993). VHS: Rhombus Media, 1993; Sony Classical Film & Video, 1994; Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1995; Rhombus International, 1996. Laserdisc: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1995. DVD: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2001. Soundtrack: Sony Classical, 1994. Genius Within: The Inner Life of Glenn Gould, directed by Michèle Hozer and Peter Raymont (White Pine Pictures, 2009)
Arnold Schoenberg: A Perspective, Occasional Papers No. 3 (Cincinnati, 1964) [the only book by Gould published in his lifetime, based on a 22 Apr 1963 lecture at University of Cincinnati]; reprinted in Glenn Gould Reader, 107-22
Écrits, 3 vols (Le dernier puritain, Contrepoint à la ligne and Non, je ne suis pas du tout un excentrique), trans. and ed. Bruno Monsaingeon (Paris 1983-6). Editions of Non, je ne suis pas du tout un excentrique in Italian (No, non sono un eccentrico, Turin 1989), Japanese (Tokyo 2001), and Russian (Moscow 2003)
The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (Toronto and New York 1984) [essays, liner notes, radio and TV commentary, reviews, lectures, interviews, humour]. Editions in Danish (Afskaf bifald: essays om musik, Copenhagen 1984), German (Schriften zur Musik, 2 vols, Von Bach bis Boulez and Vom Konzertsaal zum Tonstudio, Munich and Zurich 1986-7), Finnish (Glenn Gouldin kirjoituksia musiikista, Helsinki 1988), Italian (L'ala del turbine intelligente: scritti sulla musica, Milan 1988, 1993, 1998), Spanish (Escritos críticos, Madrid 1989), Dutch (Glenn Gould over musiek, Baarn 1990), Japanese (Guren Gurudo chosakushu, Tokyo 1990), Swedish ("Bort med applåderna!" och andra texter om musik, Göteborg 1998), and Hungarian (Tiltsuk be a tapsot!: válogatott írások, Budapest 2004)
Glenn Gould: Selected Letters, ed. John P. L. Roberts and Ghyslaine Guertin (Toronto 1992). Editions in French (Lettres, Paris 1992), Danish (Portræt af mennesket som kunstner, Copenhagen 1993), Italian (Lettere 1956-1982, Milan 1994), German (Briefe, Munich 1997), and Japanese (Guren Gurudo shokanshu, Tokyo 1999)
La série Schönberg, compiled and ed. Ghyslaine Guertin, trans. Caroline Guindon, notes by Ghyslaine Guertin and Stéphane Roy (Paris 1998) [scripts for 1974 radio series]. Edition in Italian (Milan 2001)
The Art of Glenn Gould: Reflections of a Musical Genius, ed. John P. L. Roberts (Toronto 1999) [essays, program and liner notes, radio and TV commentary, lectures, interviews]
Guren Gurudo: Kawade yume mukku (Tokyo 2000) [Gould on Bach]
Journal d'une crise, suivi de Correspondance de concert, trans. and ed. Bruno Monsaingeon (Paris, 2002) [hand-related diaries (1977-8) and letters from the concert years]
Payzant, Geoffrey. Glenn Gould, Music and Mind (Toronto, 1978; rev ed 1984; var. later reprints) Editions in Japanese (Guren Gurudo, naze konsato o hirakanaika, Tokyo 1981), French (Glenn Gould: un homme du futur, Paris 1983), Finnish (Glenn Gould: kirjoituksia musiikista, Helsinki 1988), and Polish (Glenn Gould, muzyka i my'sl, Lód'z 1995)
Bernhard, Thomas. Der Untergeher (Frankfurt 1983) [novel with Gould as central character]. Editions in French (Le naufragé, Paris 1986), English (The Loser, New York 1991), and Japanese (Tokyo 1992)
McGreevy, John, ed. Glenn Gould: Variations, by Himself and His Friends (Toronto 1983). Edition in Japanese (Tokyo 1986)
Canadian Cultural Centre. Glenn Gould (Paris 1986) [exhibition catalogue]
Matheis, Wera. Glenn Gould: der Unheilige am Klavier (Munich 1987)
Rivest, Johanne. L'interprétation musicale chez Glenn Gould, MA thesis, U of Montreal, 1987
Guertin, Ghyslaine, ed. Glenn Gould, pluriel (Verdun, Que 1988) [proceedings of the Glenn Gould Colloquium, UQAM, 13-15 Oct 1987]. Editions in Japanese (Guren Gurudo fukusu no shozo, Tokyo 1991), Chinese (Ku-erh-te mien mien kuan, Taipei 1994), and Russian (Svestrani Glen Guld, Novi Sad 2005)
National Library of Canada. Glenn Gould 1988 (Ottawa 1988) [exhibition catalogue]
Openbaar Kunstbezit. Glenn Gould in de Vondelkerk (Amsterdam 1988) [souvenir booklet of the Glenn Gould Manifestatie, Amsterdam, May-Jun 1988]
Schneider, Michel. Glenn Gould, piano solo: Aria et trente variations (Paris 1988; rev ed 1994). Editions in Italian (Glenn Gould, piano solo: Aria e trente variazioni, Turin 1991) and Japanese (Guren Gurudo kodoku no aria, Tokyo 1991)
Friedrich, Otto. Glenn Gould: A Life and Variations (New York 1989) [incl. discography and lists of writings, concerts, and broadcasts]. Editions in German (Glenn Gould: eine Biographie, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1991), Japanese (Guren Gurudo no shogai, Tokyo 1992; rev ed 2002), Portuguese (Glenn Gould: uma vida e variaçoes, Rio de Janeiro 2000), and Hungarian (Glenn Gould: Változatok egy életre, Budapest 2002)
Gould, Glenn, et. al., Glenn Gould (Tokyo 1989) [anthology]
Innes, Dale. Glenn Gould: The Goldberg Variations, MA thesis, York U, 1990
Kazdin, Andrew. Glenn Gould At Work: Creative Lying (New York 1989) [incl. discography]. Editions in German (Glenn Gould: ein Porträt, Zurich 1990) and Japanese (Guren Gurudo atto waku: sozo no uchimaku, Tokyo 1993)
Hagestedt, Jens. Wie spielt Glenn Gould? Zu einer Theorie der Interpretation (Munich 1991)
Monsaingeon, Bruno, et al. Glenn Gould daikenkyu (Tokyo 1991) [anthology]
Angilette, Elizabeth. Philosopher at the Keyboard: Glenn Gould (Metuchen, NJ, and London 1992; Lanham, MD, and London 2001). Rev version of Glenn Gould (1932-1982): A Study of His Contribution to a Philosophy of Music and Music Education, PhD thesis, New York U, 1988
Canning, Nancy. A Glenn Gould Catalog (Westport, CT, and London 1992) [discography; incl. lists of musical repertoire and writings]
National Library of Canada. Glenn Gould: Descriptive Catalogue of the Glenn Gould Papers/Catalogue raisonné du Fonds Glenn Gould, ed Ruth Pincoe and Stephen C. Willis, 2 vols (Ottawa 1992) [incl. chronology, bibliography, discography, and lists of writings, compositions, concerts, radio and TV broadcasts, and films]
Stegemann, Michael. Glenn Gould: Leben und Werk (Munich and Zurich 1992) [incl. bibliography, discography, and lists of broadcasts, films, and concert repertory]
Young, David. Glenn (Toronto 1992) [play]. Editions in German (Glenn, Bad Homburg 1993) and Japanese (Guren Gurudo saigo no tabi, Tokyo 1995)
Harris, Lee Mark. Fighting Duel-ism: A Glenn Gould Context, MA thesis, Carleton U, 1993
Carroll, Jock. Glenn Gould: Some Portraits of the Artist as a Young Man (Toronto 1995) [photographs]. Editions in German (Glenn Gould: einige Portraits des Künstlers als junger Mann, Munich 1995) and Japanese (Guren Gurudo hikari no aria, Tokyo 1995)
Csampai, Attila. Glenn Gould: Photographische Suiten (Munich 1995). Edition in Japanese (Guren Gurudo: shashin ni yoru kumikyoku, Tokyo 1998, 2004)
Girard, François, and Don McKellar. Thirty-Two Short Films About Glenn Gould (Toronto 1995) [screenplay]
Hamel-Michaud, Susanne. Glenn Gould: Mon bel et tendre amour (Quebec City 1995)
Walter, Lynne. Imagining Glenn Gould: A Speculative Study of His Psychology, diplomate thesis, C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago, 1996
Bazzana, Kevin. Glenn Gould: The Performer in the Work (Oxford, 1997). Rev version of Glenn Gould: A Study in Performance Practice, PhD thesis, U of California at Berkeley, 1996. Editions in Japanese (Guren Gurudo ensojutsu, Tokyo 2000) and German (Glenn Gould oder die Kunst der Interpretation, Kassel 2001)
Dupuis, Gilles, Trois cas d'une critique marginale: Aquin, Gould et Pasolini, PhD thesis, U of Montreal, 1997
Laborde, Denis. De Jean-Sébastien Bach à Glenn Gould: Magie des sons et spectacle de la passion (Paris 1997)
Ostwald, Peter F. Glenn Gould: The Ecstasy and Tragedy of Genius (New York and London 1997). Editions in Japanese (Guren Gurudo den: tensai no higeki to ekustashi, Tokyo 2000) and French (Glenn Gould: Extase et tragédie d'un génie, Arles 2003)
Rieger, Stefan. Glenn Gould czyli Sztuka fugi (Gdansk 1997)
Wood, Elizabeth J. The Composer-Performer Relationship, the Musical Score, and Performance: Nelson Goodman's Account of Music as Applied to the Thought and Work of Glenn Gould, PhD thesis, McGill U, 1997
Fulford, Robert. Mary Pickford, Glenn Gould, Anne of Green Gables, and Captain Kirk: Canadians in the World's Imagination (Jerusalem 1998) [lecture, 5 Jun 1997, Halbert Centre for Canadian Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem]
Sugita, Atsushi. Rihita, Gurudo, Berunharuto (Tokyo 1998)
Yang, Yandi. Gu du yu chao yue: gang qin guai jie Guerde zhuan (Shanghai 1998)
Yokota, Shoichiro. "Kusamakura" hensokyoku: Natsume Soseki to Guren Gurudo (Tokyo 1998)
Bergman, Rhona. The Idea of Gould (Philadelphia 1999)
Gennaro, Carmelo di. Glenn Gould: L'immaginazione al pianoforte (Lucca 1999)
Roy, Lynette. Glenn Gould: The Genius and His MusicA Biography for Young People, Canadian Heroes Series (Toronto 1999) [for Grades 6-8]
Suzuki, Yasuo. Kita no hito, Guren Gurudo (Tokyo 1999)
Chislett, Anne. Not Quite the Same (Toronto 2001) [children's play]
McKinnon, Ann Marie. The Death Drive: Cronenberg, Ondaatje, Gould, PhD thesis, U of Alberta, 2001
Smith, J. D., ed. Northern Music: Poems About and Inspired by Glenn Gould (Evanston, IL 2001)
Tonaka, Yukitoshi. Guren Gurudo to issho ni Shenberugu o kikou (Tokyo 2001)
Bourbonnais, Éric. "La figure de Glenn Gould": du concept d'auteur à l'ingénieur des mondes, MA thesis, U of Montreal, 2003
Estate of Glenn Gould, ed. Malcolm Lester. Glenn Gould: A Life in Pictures (Toronto 2002). Editions in French (Glenn Gould: une vie en images, Montreal 2002), German (Glenn Gould: ein Leben in Bildern, Berlin 2002) and Japanese (Guren Gurudo: a raifu in pikuchazu, Tokyo 2002)
Harris, Lee Mark. Fugue States: Music, Dissociation, and Ethical Implications, PhD thesis, Concordia U, 2002
Rasmussen, Karl Aage. Den kreative lo/gn: 12 kapitler om Glenn Gould (Copenhagen 2002)
Given-King, Elizabeth Jill. Glenn Gould's Philosophy of Recording and Its Implications for a Theory of Active Musical Listening, MA thesis, U of Toronto, 2003
Bazzana, Kevin. Wondrous Strange: The Life and Art of Glenn Gould (Toronto 2003). Editions in French (Glenn Gould: une vie, Montreal 2004; Glenn Gould: le dernier puritain, Paris 2005), Italian (Mirabilmente singolare: il racconto della vita de Glenn Gould, Rome 2004), and German (Glenn Gould: Die Biografie, Berlin 2006). Condensation in Reader's Digest, Canadian edition, May 2006, 172-98
Konieczny, Vladimir: Struggling for Perfection: The Story of Glenn Gould (Toronto 2004) [biography for children 9-12]
Miyazawa, Junichi. Guren Gurudo ron (Tokyo 2004)
The following list includes published and recorded interviews not collected in The Glenn Gould Reader, The Art of Glenn Gould, Non, je ne suis pas du tout un excentrique, or various issues of GlennGould (see "Writings"), as well as articles that include a significant interview component.
Shenner, Gladys. "The Genius Who Doesn't Want to Play," Maclean's, 28 Apr 1956, 20, 98-103
Carroll, Jock. "'I Don't Think I'm at All Eccentric,' Says Glenn Gould," Weekend Magazine [Toronto Telegram], 7 Jul 1956, 6-11
At Home with Glenn Gould, with Vincent Tovell (CBC radio, Project 60, 4 Dec 1959). LP: RCI Transcription E-156 (1959). CD: Sony Classical, for the The Glenn Gould Foundation (Toronto) (1996). Text: The Art of Glenn Gould, 66-88
Roddy, Joseph. "Apollonian," New Yorker, 14 May 1960, 51-93. Reprinted Glenn Gould: Variations, 95-123
Bester, Alfred. "The Zany Genius of Glenn Gould," Holiday, Apr 1964, 149-56
Kostelanetz, Richard. "The Glenn Gould Variations," Esquire, Nov 1967, 142-5, 165-7. Reprinted as "Glenn Gould: Bach in the Electronic Age" in Glenn Gould: Variations, 125-41, and in 3 collections by Kostelanetz: Master Minds: Portraits of Contemporary American Artists and Intellectuals (Toronto, 1969), 18-35; On Innovative Music(ian)s (New York, 1989), 3-16; and Three Canadian Geniuses: Glenn Gould, Marshall McLuhan, Northrop Frye, ed. Oriana Leckert (Toronto, 2001), 10-29
Glenn Gould: Concert Dropout, with John McClure (Columbia bonus LP, 1968; The Glenn Gould Legacy, Vol. 1, 1984). CD: CBS/Sony (Japan, 1986). Text: GlennGould, Fall 2001, 47-60
Kent, James. "Glenn Gould and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart," Canadian Composer 38, Mar 1969, 39-41 (in English and French)
Houck, Gladys. "Glenn Gould: Talking about Televisionand Beethoven," Canadian Composer 56, Jan 1971, 38-9, 46 (in English and French)
Glenn Gould über Bach, promotional recording (CBS Germany, 1972) [Gould speaking in German]. CD: Bonus CD in Kevin Bazzana, Glenn Gould: Die Biografie (Schott 2006).
Goddard, Peter. "Glenn Gould is a Conjurer," Canadian Composer 68, Mar 1972, 24-9 (in English and French)
Thomas, Tony. "Glenn Gould," Canadian Stereo Guide, Summer 1973, 48-52
Littler, William. "'Retired' Pianist Glenn Gould Is Busier than Ever," Toronto Star, 8 Dec 1973, G3
Cott, Jonathan. Conversations with Glenn Gould (Boston and Toronto 1984; Chicago 2005); based on an interview originally published in Rolling Stone, 15, 29 Aug 1974, and reprinted as "Glenn Gould: The Pianist's Progress," in Cott's Forever Young (New York 1977), 27-80. Editions in French (Entretiens avec Jonathan Cott, Paris 1983), German (Telefongespräche mit Glenn Gould, Berlin 1987; Frankurt 1995), and Japanese (Guren Gurudo to no taiwa, Tokyo 1990)
Snider, Norman. "Glenn Gould at 45," Toronto Life, May 1978, 58-9, 123-33
Conversation between Gould and Yehudi Menuhin , The Music of Man: Part 8, "Sound or Unsound" (CBC-PBS co-production), 12 Dec 1979. Text: Menuhin, Yehudi, and Curtis W. Davis, The Music of Man (Toronto 1979), 290-6
Gould, Glenn. A Glenn Gould Fantasy, humorous self-interview, in The Glenn Gould Silver Jubilee Album, 1980 (see "Discography")
Mach, Elyse. "Glenn Gould," Great Pianists Speak for Themselves (New York 1980), 88-113
Stephen, Andrew. "A Rare Meeting with the Bobby Fischer of Music," Sunday Times Magazine [London], 16 Mar 1980, 66-8, 71-5
Page, Tim. "Rare Gould: Glenn Gould Bach's Bad Boy," Soho News, 26 Nov 1980, 11-13
Colgrass, Ulla. "Glenn Gould," Music Magazine, Jan-Feb 1981, 6-11; reprinted in For the Love of Music: Interviews with Ulla Colgrass (Toronto 1988), 72-83
Mayer, Martin. "Interview: Glenn Gould," Fono Forum, Jun 1981, 20-7 [in German]; in English in GlennGould, Fall 1995, 16-20
Roddy, Joseph. "Glenn Gould," People, 30 Nov 1981, 107-14; reprinted (condensed) as "Glenn Gould: That Nut Is a Genius," Reader's Digest, May 1982, 93-6
Shames, Laurence. "Glenn Gould: Music for Piano and a Different Drummer," Esquire, Dec 1981, 89, 102-4 [incl. last known photographs of Gould]
Page, Tim. "The Filtered World: A Final Interview with Glenn Gould" , Vanity Fair, May 1983, 96-101, 125
Dubal, David. "Glenn Gould: A Last Interview" , Piano Quarterly, Fall 1984, 55-7; reprinted in Dubal's Reflections from the Keyboard: The World of the Concert Pianist (New York 1984), 178-83
Page, Tim. Promotional interview on the Goldberg Variations, recorded 22 Aug 1982. LP: Glenn Gould: Bach, Volume 1 (CBS Masterworks, 1984). CD: CBS/Sony (Japan, 1989). Text: GlennGould, Spring 2001, 15-26
The Glenn Gould Profile, (Media Arts Program of the Banff Centre for the Arts, 1989), interactive "hypermedia" program, produced under the direction of Michael Century, with texts by B. W. Powe and Ghyslaine Guertin
Glenn Gould: The New Listener (DNA Media, 1998) [CD-ROM]. Version in French (Glenn Gould: Le nouvel auditeur, 2000)
Glenn Gould Plays Bach (iSong, 1999), "Interactive Sheet Music" (instructional CD-ROM)
Periodicals Devoted to Gould
GlennGould, semi-annual (The Glenn Gould Foundation (Toronto), 1995-2005; University of Toronto Press, 2007- )
The Gould Standard, quarterly, 12 nos. (The Glenn Gould Foundation (Toronto), 1997-2000) [newsletter]
Special Issues of Periodicals
du 4 (Zurich, Apr 1990)
WAVE 37 (Tokyo, May 1993)
Eureka 27/1 (Tokyo, Jan 1995)
Articles and Book Chapters
Parks, Gordon [photographer]. "Music World's Young Wonder," Life, 12 Mar 1956, 105-8
Waldrop, Gid. "Glenn Gould: Conquest of the Musical World in One Year," Review of Recorded Music, May 1956, 6-7
Viets, Edward. "Glenn Gould ... a Début and a Personality," Étude, Oct 1956, 15, 42
Ross, Mary Lowrey. "The Self-Directed Artist," Saturday Night, 8 Dec 1956, 20-1
Harrison, Jay. "Making a Record with Leonard Bernstein," Reporter, 11 Jul 1957, 41-3
Neuhaus, Heinrich. "Glenn Gould," Culture and Life [Moscow], Jul-Aug 1957, 77
Mayer-Serra, Otto. "Nuestra caratula: De Bach a Webern: Glenn Gould," Audio y Musica, Apr 1959, 9-16
Roy, Klaus G. "An Open Letter to Glenn Gould," Fine Arts: A Weekly Guide, 28 May 1961, 7-10
Haggin, B. H. "Matters of Style," New Republic, 27 Aug 1962, 28-30
Offergeld, Robert. "Glenn Gould: As Among Bach, Botticelli, and Breugel," High Fidelity/Musical America, Jun 1963, 31-6
"Fugue," New Yorker, 7 Dec 1963, 47-50
Haggin, B. H. Music Observed (New York 1964), esp. 248-50
Haggin, B. H. "Music and Ballet Chronicle," Hudson Review, Autumn 1964, 440-6
Culshaw, John. "The Mellow Knob, or the Rise of Records and the Decline of the Concert Hall as Foreseen by Glenn Gould," Records and Recordings, Nov 1966, 26-28
Davis, Peter G. "Glenn Gould Allows a Guest," High Fidelity, Aug 1967, 23
Kaiser, Joachim. "Glenn Gould and Friedrich Gulda," Great Pianists of Our Time (London 1971), 139-51 [trans. of Grosse Pianisten in unserer Zeit (Munich 1965)]
Beaujean, Alfred. "Glenn Gould als Denkanstoß: Zur Neuaufnahme der drei Klaviersonaten Hindemiths," Hindemith-Jahrbuch, 1973, 137-43
Cossé, Peter. "Irritation aus dem Studio," Fono Forum, Apr 1973, 328-32
Myers, Paul. "Glenn Gould," Gramophone, Feb 1973, 1478
Schmidt, Felix. "Bach geht aus allen Fugen," Stern, 25 Oct 1973, 149-53
Monsaingeon, Bruno. "Glenn Gould," Gam, Jan 1975, 31-4 [in French]
Appelman, Harron K., and Kenneth Kulmann. "Contra Gould: Method, Premise," High Fidelity/Musical America, Nov 1975, 6-8
Roberts, John Peter Lee. "Glenn Gould," Arts: Bulletin of the Canadian Conference of the Arts, May-Jun 1976, 15, 23-4
Payzant, Geoffrey. "Glenn Gould and Opera: A Unique Attitude," Opera Canada, Spring 1978, 10-11, 44
Payzant, Geoffrey. "The Long Distance Communication of Pianist Glenn Gould," Music Magazine, Mar-Apr 1978, 28-30
Goddard, Peter. "Glenn Gould: Eccentric, Wunderkind, Visionary," Chatelaine, May 1978, 8-10
Guertin-Bélanger, Ghislaine. "Gould contre Wagner," Musique en jeu, May 1978, 78-84
Owen, I. M. "Inside the Mind of Glenn Gould," Saturday Night, Sep 1978, 63-4
Payzant, Geoffrey. "Glenn Gould Versus the Concert Hall Performance," Canadian Composer 133, Sep 1978, 4-11 (in English and French)
Payzant, Geoffrey. "Glenn Gould and the New Audience for Today's Music," Canadian Composer 134, Oct 1978, 16-23 (in English and French)
Danuser, Hennann. "Einige Beispiele aktualisierender Bach-Interpretation nach 1950," Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse, Nov-Dec 1978, 336-48
Drillon, Jacques. "Glenn Gould, un piano dans la tête," Le Monde de la musique: Télérama, Feb 1979, 26-8
Stringer, Robert. "Glenn Gould," Gramophone, Feb 1979, 1402, 1407
Lipman, Samuel. "Glenn Gould's Dissent," Commentary, Nov 1979, 72-7; reprinted (along with "An Obituary") in Lipman's The House of Music: Art in an Era of Institutions (Boston, 1984), 79-95
Sachs, Harvey. "Glenn Gould," Virtuoso (New York, 1982), 176-97
Drillon, Jacques. "Gould," Le Monde de la musique: Télérama, Jan 1982, 62-5
Adilman, Sid. "Some Special Friends Share Memories of the Late Pianist," Toronto Star, 6 Oct 1982, B1
Czarnecki, Mark. "Glenn Gould, 1932-1982," Maclean's, 18 Oct 1982, 38-43
Drillon, Jacques. "Ainsi parlait Glenn Gould," Le Monde de la musique: Télérama, Nov 1982, 22-6, 98
Lipman, Samuel. "Notebook: Glenn Gould," The New Criterion, Nov 1982, 91-2
Roberts, John Peter Lee. "Glenn Gould in Retrospect," Arts: Bulletin of the Canadian Conference of the Arts, Nov/Dec 1982, 1-2
Awazu, Norio, Hikaru Hayashi, and Kyoichi Kusoda. ["Gould in Wonderland"], Recodo Geijutsu, Dec 1982, 169-75
Fulford, Robert. "Growing up Gould," Saturday Night, Dec 1982, 3-5; reprinted Glenn Gould: Variations, 57-63
Canin, Martin. "Looking Back," Piano Quarterly, Winter 1982-83, 7-8
Silverman, Robert J. "Memories: Glenn Gould 1932-1982," Piano Quarterly, Winter 1982-83, 2-5; reprinted in Music Magazine, Nov/Dec 1983, 14-17, and Glenn Gould: Variations, 143-9
Rattalino, Piero. "L'eserciti di arlecchino," Da Clementi a Pollini: Duecento anni con i grandi pianisti (Florence, 1983), 367-76; in English in GlennGould, Spring 1998, 6-10
Gould, Allan M. "Glenn Gould: The Way He Was," Radio Guide [CBC], Jan 1983, 6-8
Youngren, William H. "Music: Interpreting Glenn Gould," Atlantic, Jan 1983, 96-100
Strickland, Edward. "Glenn Gould in Retrospect: In Memoriam," Fanfare, Jan-Feb 1983, 50-62, 377
Koscis, Susan, compiler. "Recording Gould: a retake here, a splice there, a myth everywhere," High Fidelity, Feb 1983, 55-6, 80 [interviews with 5 record producers]
Goldsmith, Harris. "Glenn Gould: An Appraisal," High Fidelity/Musical America, Feb 1983, 54-5
Youngren, William H. "Interpreting Glenn Gould," Atlantic, Feb 1983, 96-100
Guertin, Ghyslaine. "La poétique de Glenn Gould," La petite revue de philosophie, Spring 1983, 116
Said, Edward W. "The Music Itself: Glenn Gould's Contrapuntal Vision," Vanity Fair, May 1983, 96-101, 127-8; reprinted Glenn Gould: Variations, 45-54
Hurwitz, Robert. "Encounters with Glenn Gould," Ovation, Oct 1983, 19-22
Monsaingeon, Bruno. "Glenn Gould: le dernier puritain," Diapason, Mar 1984, 31-4
Haggin, B. H. "Glenn Gould: A Corrective Assessment of the Pianist's Use of His Phenomenal Gifts," High Fidelity/Musical America, Aug 1984, 39-42, 48
Stanton, David. "A Cry for the Individual," Piano Quarterly, Fall 1984, 50-3
Strickland, Edward. "The Legacy of Glenn Gould," Fanfare, Sep-Oct 1984, 136-46
Rustage-Johnson, Avril. Untitled reminiscence in The Morningside Papers, ed Peter Gzowski (Toronto, 1985), 237-9
Hathaway, Thomas. "Glenn Gould: A Legacy of Leavings," High Fidelity, Apr 1985, 70-2
Powe, Bruce W. "The Quirk Quotient," Books in Canada, Apr 1985, 37-40
Gotlieb, Heidi, and Vladimir J. Konecni. "The Effects of Instrumentation, Playing Style, and Structure in the Goldberg Variations by Johann Sebastian Bach," Music Perception, Fall 1985, 87-101
Rattalino, Piero. "Glenn GouldBeethoven: Duello di tiranni," Musica, Oct 1985, 46-50
Fischer, Matthias, Dietmar Holland, and Bernhard Rzehulka: Gehörgänge: zur Ästhetik der musikalischen Aufführung und ihrer technischen Reproduktion (Munich 1986) [includes writings by Gould in translation]
Théberge, Paul. "Counterpoint: Glenn Gould and Marshall McLuhan," Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, Jan/Feb 1986, 109-27
Schwartz, Sanford. "The Pilgrim Pianist: The Music and the Mission of Glenn Gould," New Republic, 1 Sep 1986, 27-34
Wait, Mark. "Glenn Gould: Did We Really Hear Him?" Piano Quarterly, Fall 1986, 60-3
Fulford, Robert. "Recalling a Funny, Lovable Boy," Toronto Star, 18 Oct 1986, M5
Shames, Laurence. "The Hunstein Variations: A Photographer's Long-Playing Record of the Life of Iconoclastic Musician Glenn Gould," American Photographer, Nov 1986, 60-5
Marcotte, Gilles. "Glenn Gould, la grandeur, le Canada," Liberté, Dec 1986, 32-7; trans. and repr. as "On Glenn Gould and Canada," Antigonish Review, Autumn/Winter 1988, 193-8
Eisenberg, Evan. "Glenn Gould," The Recording Angel: Explorations in Phonography (New York, 1987; New Haven, CT 2005), 101-8
Powe, Bruce W. "The Search for Glenn Gould," The Solitary Outlaw (Toronto 1987), 135-65
Schonberg, Harold C. "Bach à la mode," The Great Pianists, 2nd ed. (New York 1987), 475-81
Clavel, Marielle. "Le dernier puritain: Le pianiste canadien Glenn Gould," La Revue de morphopsychologie, Jan 1987, 39-48
Rasy, Elisabetta. "Sul piano della leggenda: il rilancio del mitico Glenn Gould," Panorama, 15 Mar 1987, 104-9
Guertin, Ghyslaine. "À propos de 'Glenn Gould et les Variations Goldberg': une approche sémiologique de l'interprétation," Analyse musicale, Apr 1987, 16-20
Morin, France. "This Is Glenn Gould ...," Artforum, Summer 1987, 102-6
Schneider, Michel. "Etre dans la solitude: Glenn Gould, piano solo," La Nouvelle revue de psychanalyse, Fall 1987, 21-59
Frappet, Aloïs. "Docteur Glenn et Mister Gould," Diapason, Oct 1987, 52-69
Fulford, Robert. "The Genius Who Lived Next Door," Best Seat in the House: Memoirs of a Lucky Man (Toronto 1988), 36-51
Payzant, Geoffrey. "The Glenn Gould Outtakes," Musical Canada: Words and Music Honouring Helmut Kallmann, ed. John Beckwith and Frederick A. Hall (Toronto 1988), 298-313
Black, William. "A Matter of Ifs," Piano Quarterly, Fall 1988, 61-2
Helwig, Maggie. "Participating in God: The Theology of Glenn Gould," Canadian Forum, Jan 1988, 29-31
Lompech, Alain, compiler. "Métamorphoses de Glenn Gould," Le Monde de la musique: Télérama, Feb 1988, 20-31
Dubal, David. "Glenn Gould," The Art of the Piano: Its Performers, Literature, and Recordings (New York 1989, 1995), 99-103
Helwig, Maggie. "The Other Goldberg Variations: Homage to Glenn Gould" [cycle of poems], Talking Prophet Blues (Kingston 1989), 23-61
Findley, Timothy. "The Gould Standard," Saturday Night, Apr 1989, 71-2
Rothstein, Edward. "Heart of Gould," New Republic, 26 Jun 1989, 28-31
Oswald, Peter. "Glenn Gould: Some Personal Reminiscences," Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Sep 1989, 136-9
Rattalino, Piero. "Glenn Gould in insalata capricciosa," Musica, Dec 1989-Jan 1990, 12-19
Rattalino, Piero. "Gould," Pianisti e fortisti: Viaggio pellegrino tra gli interpreti all tastiera da ... Bunin a Planté (Florence 1990), 343-60; in English in GlennGould, Spring 1998, 11-18
Siepmann, Jeremy. "Glenn Gould and the Interpreter's Prerogative," Musical Times, Jan 1990, 25-7; reprinted Piano Quarterly, Winter 1990-91, 29-37
Mahnkopf, Claus-Steffen. "Glenn Goulds klavieristische Ästhetik," Üben und Musizieren 5 (1990), 282-7
Mattner, Lothar. "Ein postmortales Interview: Glenn Gould interviewt Glenn Gould über Glenn Gould," Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 7/8 (1990), 15-18
Ranada, David. "Man, Music, and Machinery," Musical America, May 1990, 93-4
Silverman, Robert. "The Fragility of Genius," Piano Quarterly, Summer 1990, 60-3
Said, Edward W. "Performance as an Extreme Occasion" [1989 lecture], Musical Elaborations (New York1991), 1-34; reprinted The Edward Said Reader, ed. Moustafa Bayoumi and Andrew Rubin (New York 2000), 317-46
Page, Tim. "Glenn Gould's Last Stand," Classical, Jan 1991, 34-40
Guertin, Ghyslaine. "Nature et fonction de la relation de Glenn Gould à Arnold Schoenberg," Les Cahiers de l'ARMuQ, May 1991, 66-77
Mohr, Franz, with Edith Schaeffer. "Glenn Gould," My Life with the Great Pianists: Horowitz, Cliburn, Rubinstein & Others (Grand Rapids, MI 1992, 1999), 75-82
Page, Tim, Music from the Road: Views and Reviews, 1978-1992 (New York 1992) [includes articles about Gould]
Littler, William. "An Ongoing Legacy," Bravo, May-Jun 1992, 48-52
Elliot, Robin. "Glenn Gould and the Canadian Composer," Notations, Sep 1992, 1, 4-5, 12
Fulford, Robert. "Ladies and Gentlemen, Glenn Gould Has Left the Building," Saturday Night, Sep 1992, 46-50, 71-3
Friedlander, Mira. "Jessie Remembers her Cousin Glenn," Toronto Star, 20 Sep 1992, D1
Payzant, Geoffrey. "Gould a Master at Aural Mix and Match," Globe and Mail, 29 Sep 1992, C2
Zweifel, Stefan. "Glenn Gould: Genie der Variationen," Zeit Magazin, 2 Oct 1992, 74-84
Steiner, George. "Glenn Gould's Notes" [review of Glenn Gould: Selected Letters], New Yorker, 23 Nov 1992, 137-41
Strecker, James. "Variations on Genius" [cycle of poems], Echosystem: Poems & Poem Cycles (Hamilton 1993), 84-94
Crutchfield, Will. "The Man Who Would Be Liszt," New York Times, 14 Feb 1993, 25, 27
Goddard, Peter. "FYI," Performance, 16-18 Jun 1993, 68-70
Aide, William. "Fact and Freudian Fable: ... on Gould and Guerrero, Idler, Summer 1993, 59-61
Künzi, Daniel. "Glenn Gould: Résonance et utopie," Études, Jul-Aug 1993, 95-103
Kaiser, Joachim. "Glenn Gould," Erlebte Musik: Eine persönliche Musikgeschichte vom 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart (Munich, 2nd ed. 1994), II, 464-78
Schmidt, Felix. "Glenn Gould: Dämon der Übertreibung," Hat man Töne? Porträts bedeutender Musiker unserer Zeit (Munich, 1994), 319-25
Kuerti, Anton. "All that glitters is not Gould," Toronto Globe and Mail, 12 Feb 1994, C9; expanded as "Glenn Gould's Manipulations," Literary Review of Canada, Mar 1994, 3-5
Kieser, Karen. "Glenn Gould and the CBC," Classical Music Magazine, Spring 1995, 13-17
Forfia, Ken. "Recording the Goldberg Variations: Glenn Gould's Workshop," Piano and Keyboard, Sep-Oct 1995, 34-8
Mohr, Franz, with Beat Rink. "Glenn Gould," Große Maestros, hinter der Bühne erlebt (Basel and Gießen 1996), 11-26
Four articles in Essays on Canadian Writing No. 59, Autumn 1996: Hjartarson, Paul, "Of Inward Journeys and Interior Landscapes: Glenn Gould, Lawren Harris, and The Idea of North," 65-86; McNeilly, Kevin, "Listening, nordicity, community: Glenn Gould's The Idea of North," 87-104; Dickinson, Peter, "Documenting 'North' in Canadian Poetry and Music," 105-22; and Cavell, Richard, "White Technologies," 199-210
Beckwith, John. Music Papers: Articles and Talks by a Canadian Composer, 1961-94 (Ottawa, 1997) [incl. 3 articles on Gould]
Kumamoto, Mari. Oto yo kagayake: Bahha kara tango (Tokyo 1997) [incl. sections on Gould]
Rawlinson, H. Graham, and J. L. Granatstein. "Glenn Gould," The Canadian 100: The 100 Most Influential Canadians of the Twentieth Century (Toronto 1997), 278-81
Kelly, Deirdre. "The Gould Rush," Globe and Mail, 20 Sep 1997, C1, 16
Kenneson, Claude. "Glenn," Musical Prodigies: Perilous Journeys, Remarkable Lives (Portland, OR 1999), 160-7
Mayer, Hans. "Musik nach der Zerstörung: Glenn Gould," Gelebte Musik: Erinnerungen (Frankfurt 1999), 219-26
Foster, Peter. "If Glenn Gould Were Alive Today ...," Toronto Life, October 1999, 116-24
Kostelanetz, Richard. Three Canadian Geniuses: Glenn Gould, Marshall McLuhan, Northrop Frye, ed. Oriana Leckert (Toronto 2001) [incl. 4 articles on Gould]
Barclay, Robert. "Glenn Gould's 'Working' Piano" and "Glenn Gould's Favourite Piano," The Preservation and Use of Historic Musical Instruments: Display Case and Concert Hall (London and Sterling, VA 2005), 89-100 and 169-84
James, Ioan. "Glenn Gould (1932-1982)," Asperger's Syndrome and High Achievement: Some Very Remarkable People (London and Philadelphia 2006)
Ledgin, Norm. "A Performer Who Seemed Wedded to His Piano," Asperger's and Self-Esteem: Insight and Hope through Famous Role Models (Arlington, TX 2002), 123-30
Osborne, Lawrence. "The Last Puritan," American Normal: The Hidden World of Asperger Syndrome (New York 2002), 85-110
Fitzgerald, Michael. "Glenn Gould (1932-82)," The Genesis of Artistic Creativity: Asperger's Syndrome and the Arts (London and Philadelphia 2005), 192-202
Two articles in Intersections: Canadian Journal of Music 25/1-2 (2005): Markus Mantere, "Northern Ways to Think About Music: Glenn Gould's Idea of North as an Aesthetic Category," 86-112; and Friedemann Sallis, "Glenn Gould's Idea of North and the Production of Place in Music," 113-37
Beckwith, John. "Glenn Gould," In Search of Alberto Guerrero (Waterloo 2006), 99-106
Author Kevin Bazzana, Geoffrey Payzant, John Beckwith
Links to Other Sites
An informative website about the life and music of Glenn Gould. Features his biography, discography, photos, timeline, and more. From Sony BMG Music Entertainment.
Canadian Music Centre
Search the extensive CMC website for Canadian composer biographies and interviews, music scores, online newsletters, audio clips, podcasts, and more. Check out "CentreStreams" to listen to online archived recordings featuring outstanding Canadian composers.
Glenn Gould Archive
An online collection of archival material about celebrated musician Glenn Gould. Includes audio clips of interviews, discussions, photos, writings, and more. From Library and Archives Canada.
Glenn Gould Foundation
The Glenn Gould Foundation website concerns events and programs dedicated to Glenn Gould and his music legacy. See profiles of current and pervious Glenn Gould Prize Laureates.
Conservatory Experts Discuss Glenn Gould at the Grammys
A blog post about Glenn Gould's posthumous 2013 GRAMMY Lifetime Achievement Award. With links to related articles from The Star newspaper. From The Royal Conservatory website.
Lifetime Achievement Award: Glenn Gould
Renowned pianist Lang Lang pays tribute to Glenn Gould and his legendary recordings of the music of Bach and other great composers. From the website for the GRAMMY Awards.
Glenn Gould: Variations on an Artist
See CBC's collection of audio and visual clips featuring the masterful musician Glenn Gould.
'So You Want to Write a Fugue?' for Four Voices and String Quartet
Listen to an audio clip of Glenn Gould performing his composition 'So You Want to Write a Fugue?' for Four Voices and String Quartet. Also features Anita Darian, Boris Brott, Charles Bressler, Donald Gramm, Elizabeth Benson-Guy, the Juilliard String Quartet, Symphonia Quartet, and Vladimir Golschmann. From iTunes.
The Glenn Gould Performance Database
An extensive online Glenn Gould performance database searchable by year, concert date, city concert took place, State or Province, Country, conductor, orchestra, other artists, performance instrument, composers, and compositions. Requires Macromedia Shochwave.
String Quartet Opus 1
View a video featuring a performance of Glenn Gould's only major composition: his String Quartet Opus 1. From YouTube.
Click on the brief profiles of "extraordinary Canadians" and the authors who wrote about them in this Penguin Group (Canada) series. Also includes bios of artists who created the cover art for each book.
Glenn Gould - Bach Cantata 54
Glenn Gould plays and conducts "Bach Cantata 54." From the Glenn Gould channel on YouTube.
Glenn Gould Studio
The website for the Glenn Gould Studio in Toronto. Offers a virtual tour of the studio and a listing of upcoming performances.
CBC: Glenn Gould
This website is home to the CBC's vast multimedia collection about esteemed Canadian composer Glenn Gould.
View brief videos from a television series profiling some of Canada's most distinguished Canadians. Click on "Older Posts" at the bottom of the page to see additional videos.
Shawnadithit grew anxious waiting for her uncle, Longnon, to return to camp at the junction of Badger Brook and the Exploits River, deep in the wilds of Newfoundland...