Following the drug scandal at the 1988 OLYMPIC GAMES
in Seoul, when Ben Johnson was stripped of his gold medal after testing positive for steroids, the federal government established the Commission of Inquiry Into the Use of Drugs and Banned Practices Intended to Increase Athletic Performance. Ontario Appeal Court Chief Justice Charles Dubin was appointed to conduct the inquiry. Several months of shocking testimony about the rampant use of performance-enhancing substances among athletes led Dubin to criticize the testing policies and procedures of both the federal government and amateur sports associations in his report, released in June 1990. As a result, Canada strengthened its drug-testing program with the creation of the independent nonprofit Canadian Anti-Doping Organization in April 1991. The organization is responsible for drug-testing policy, practice and implementation in Canada. Canada is now an internationally recognized leader in the fight against performance-enhancing substances, but the commission has been ignored in other countries.