Watch a video clip of an artist playing the pipa, a stringed traditional Chinese musical instrument, at the Community Dance and Craft Day event at Richmond Cultural Centre in Richmond, BC. From YouTube.
View a video clip of a lion dance performance at a Chinese Canadian wedding ceremony. From YouTube.
Origins and Migration
During the 19th century, war and rebellion in China forced many peasants and workers to seek their livelihoods elsewhere. Rural poverty and political upheavals stemming from the first Opium War (1839-1842) and the Hakka-led T'ai P'ing Rebellion (1850-1864) caused widespread Chinese emigration. Historically, the majority of migrants came from the 4 districts or counties (Tai Shan, Xin Hui, Kai Ping, En Ping) in the Pearl River delta of Guangdong province between Guangzhou and Hong Kong. In these areas, a tradition existed of seeking opportunities overseas, sending money back to support relatives in China, and eventually returning, if possible.
The major periods of Chinese immigration (from 1858 to 1923 and since 1947) reflected changes in Canadian government IMMIGRATION POLICY. From 1885, Chinese migrants were obligated to pay a $50 "entry" or "head" tax before being admitted into Canada. The Chinese were the only ethnic group to pay a tax to enter Canada. By 1900, in response to agitation in BC, the Liberal government increasingly restricted Asian immigration by raising the head tax to $100. BC politicians greeted this decision with angry derision and demanded it be increased to $500. The federal government appointed a Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration (1902), which concluded that the Asians were "unfit for full citizenship ... obnoxious to a free community and dangerous to the state."
After the 1903 session of Parliament passed legislation raising the head tax to $500, the number of Chinese who paid the fee in the first fiscal year dropped from 4719 to 8. Soon afterwards, however, Chinese immigration increased again and on 1 July 1923 (known to many Canadian Chinese as "Humiliation Day"), the Chinese Immigration Act was replaced by legislation that virtually suspended Chinese immigration. In 1947 the discriminatory legislation was repealed.
Largely because of the head tax, the cost of bringing a wife or aged parents to Canada became prohibitive. Therefore, men typically came alone and lived as bachelors in Canada. In 1931, out of a total Chinese population of 46 519, only 3648 were women. In the late 1920s it was estimated that there were only 5 married Chinese women in Calgary and 6 in Edmonton.
Since 1947, immigration of families has been the rule, with the majority of individuals emigrating from Hong Kong, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. Other Chinese immigrants have come from South Asia, Southeast Asia, South Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. These Chinese speak English and either Mandarin, Fukien, or Cantonese, are well educated, and frequently possess financial resources and professional skills. The most recent census reported the Chinese languages as Canada's third most common mother tongue group, after English and French.
Since 1900, Chinese Canadians have chosen to settle in urban areas, and are now concentrated in the largest cities. Contrary to stereotypes of Chinatowns as "classic ghettos - overcrowded and squalid," the communities that developed in the 19th and 20th centuries were significant places for businesses and families. They became the heart and soul of Chinese Canada and were a safe bastion from the hostile and racist environment that surrounded them. In particular, Vancouver's Chinatown during the exclusion era (1923-1947) became a thriving economic and social destination and home for many Chinese on the West Coast.
In Vancouver, restrictive covenants prevented the Chinese from buying property outside the Chinatown area until the 1930s. During the 1880s almost all Chinese lived in BC, and by the 1940s almost 50% of their population lived on the West Coast. Although Chinese communities have developed rapidly in other urban centres, approximately 70% of Chinese Canadians still live in Toronto and Vancouver.
Economic and Financial Life
When they first arrived in BC, the Chinese were involved in various kinds of work. Some were gleaners in the gold fields, often working abandoned claims; others became labourers, cooks, laundrymen, teamsters, domestic servants and merchants, providing auxiliary services to mining communities. Between 1880 and 1885 the primary work for Chinese labourers was on the railway, and during the next 40 years, Chinese became involved in the rough work of a pioneer industrial economy. Skilled or semi-skilled Chinese worked in the BC sawmills and canneries; others became market gardeners or grocers, pedlars, shopkeepers and restaurateurs.
A "credit-ticket" system evolved whereby Chinese lenders in North America or China would agree to pay the travel expenses of a migrant who was then bound to the lender until the debt was repaid, even though these contracts were not legally enforceable in Canada. The work of Chinese industrial labourers was often organized under contract and sometimes involved Chinese work gangs. At the turn of the century Chinese cannery bosses were frequently hired on contract, and then recruited workers and assumed the financial risk of low production. From the 1880s this practice was also employed in railway construction. Although Chinese labour was characterized by low wages (Chinese workers usually received less than 50% of that paid to white workers for the same work) and high levels of transience, they maintained a strong work discipline. (See IMMIGRANT LABOUR.)
The earliest Chinese professionals tended to serve primarily the Chinese community. In BC, the Chinese were barred for years from such professions as law, pharmacy and accountancy. The first Chinese-Canadian lawyers were called to the bar only in the 1940s. Since then, discriminatory laws have been repealed and the character of immigration has changed as many Chinese professionals serving a mixed clientele have immigrated. Nevertheless, even in the 1980s, Chinese were still heavily involved in the SERVICE INDUSTRY. At the turn of the 21st century, Chinese Canadians could be found in many occupations, including those of television reporter, jazz musician, classical dancer, novelist, police officer and politician, as well as in the traditional careers of educator, scientist and entrepreneur.
A major investor in Canada has been Li Ka-shing, who bought Husky Oil and Gas in Alberta in 1987 and began development of Pacific Place in Vancouver in 1988. His sons, Victor and Richard, are Canadian citizens. Extensive Hong Kong investments reinvigorated the economy and introduced a unique pattern of commercial values and business ethics founded on the traditional Confucian paradigm of interpersonal relationships. According to the 2009 Canadian Business, Brandt LOUIE was one of the 50 wealthiest Canadians.
Social Life and Community
Although some tension between new and old immigrants exists, the web of kinship is still strong. During the 19th and most of the 20th centuries, Chinese Canada reflected cultural traditions such as the kinship system (based on ancestral descent), the "joss house" or temple, and Chinese theatre; however, the community also incorporated North American characteristics. The Chinese community in Canada has generated its own elite and its own "voluntary" associations adapted from models in China that provide personal and community welfare services, social contact and political activity. Rural Chinese immigrants have typically had to adapt to urban conditions, and these associations have helped migrants adjust to a new culture and to manage PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION and RACISM.
During the early decades of the 20th century, fraternal-political associations such as the Guomindang and the FREEMASONS were involved in Chinatown politics and community issues. Larger Chinese communities established Chinese Benevolent Associations as the apex of their organizational structures; these organizations adjudicated disputes within the community and spoke for the community to the outside world. None of these organizations, however, has been an effective national voice. Typically Canadian organizations such as the Elks, Lions, Masons, and veterans' associations have appeared within the Chinese community.
Moreover, because of the influx of many Chinese from the global diaspora, community organizations reflecting the Chinese from Cuba, India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Peru, etc. have created a dynamic presence in Canada. Immigrants from the People's Republic of China have organized into many associations. The most notable is the Chinese Professionals Association of Canada with a membership of more than 10 000. Almost every region has an association and the best known are the Beijing and Shanghai Associations. Professional organizations are gradually replacing the old Guomindang, Freemasons, and Chinese Benevolent Associations.
The original Chinese communities were isolated from white culture for several reasons. The Chinese have often been stereotyped as "sojourners"; that is, in Canada temporarily to obtain financial security for relatives in China. During the 19th century especially, the Caucasian society of BC perceived the Chinese as unassimilable, and certain aspects of Chinese life in Canada reinforced the racial stereotype of the Chinese as a threat to white society. Fears of disease (eg, CHOLERA and leprosy), white reactions to overcrowded living conditions in Chinatown, the introduction of the drug trade, and an obsessive concern with Chinese GAMBLING habits all helped maintain the conviction that the Chinese, as one senator speaking for white residents of BC explained, "are not of our race and cannot become part of ourselves."
In addition, the discriminatory laws and attitudes at the time prevented many Chinese from considering Canada as their permanent home. Thus, the transitional mentality, reinforced by Canadian legislation that excluded Chinese immigration to Canada between 1923 and 1947, prevented easy immigration of Chinese families and precluded their participation professionally, socially or politically in the dominant society. It was not until 1947 that the Chinese were granted Canadian citizenship.
Religious and Philosophical Life
Religion for the Chinese in Canada has commonly been expressed in private but generally, it is declining in importance. In the 2001 census the Chinese community was significantly different from the rest of the Canadian population, reporting that 58% have no religious affiliation, compared to 15% of the Canadian population as a whole. The proportion of Christians in the Chinese population rose from 10% in 1921 to 60% by 1961, declining to 26% by 2001; other Chinese Canadians follow Buddhist, Islamic and other religions. Among Canadians of Chinese origin with a religious affiliation, 34% were Buddhist, 28% were Catholic and 22% belonged to a Protestant denomination. Unlike the declining membership in many of the Christian churches, Chinese membership in the BAPTIST Church has continued to grow. Many Chinese are also followers of philosophical Daoism, Zen BUDDHISM, and Qi gong.
The major Chinese festival is the Lunar New Year (February or late January), which is celebrated in many Chinese communities with firecrackers and lion and dragon dancers. Other important festive days are "Bright-Clear," a springtime sweeping of graves of ancestors, and "Mid-Autumn," a late summer occasion for moon watching.
Since the mid-1980s there has been a flowering of indigenous culture in Chinese Canada. This robust culture has begun to develop not as a reflection of China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan, but within the experience of the Chinese in Canada. Major writers influencing the evolution of a new and dynamic literary tradition include Evelyn LAU, Wayson CHOY, Larissa Lai, Denise CHONG, Paul Yee, Jim Wong-Chu and Vincent Lam. Filmmakers such as Laiwan, Christina Wong, Colleen Leung, Dora Nipp, Tony Chan, Yung Chang, William Dere, Richard Fung, Julia Kwan, Karin Lee, Mina Shum, Michelle Wong, Paul Wong, and Keith Lock have been at the forefront of a new cinematic tradition conditioned and infused with the experience of the Chinese in Canada. The doyen of Chinese Canadian filmmakers, Keith Lock directed The Ache (2009), a critically acclaimed feature that explored the dynamics of fantasy, perception, and spirits. Irene Chu was the executive producer of a 20-part series for OMNI Television exploring the lives of Chinese immigrants in Canada. Entitled Once Upon a Time in Toronto (2009), it was the first major China/Canada associate-production of a television drama series.
Canadian film and theatrical actors of Chinese heritage include Tommy Chong (Up in Smoke), Kristin Kreuk (Smallville), Byron Lawson (Snakes on a Plane), Linlyn Lue (Degrassi: The Next Generation), Jennifer Tilly (Jennifer E. Chan, Bullets over Broadway); Meg Tilly (Agnes of God), Valerie Sing Turner (Da Vinci's City Hall, La Femme Nikita), Norman Lup-Man Yeung (Pu-Erh), and Françoise Fong-Wa Yip (Rumble in the Bronx).
One of the first influential literary and political magazines to create a dynamic venue for many Chinese and Asian Canadian writers, activists and filmmakers was the Asianadian: An Asian Canadian Magazine (1978-1985). Such well-known authors as Sky LEE and Paul Yee had their first writings in that magazine, which was co-founded by Tony Chan in Toronto. A 21st century online version of the Asianadian is the Toronto-based Ginger Post (2009) founded by Wei Djao and Lian Chan.
Musicians Sean Gunn (Running Dog Lackey) and Trevor and Matt Chan (no luck club), and composer Darren Fung (Stinky Rice Studios), are some of the heirs to the Chinese Canadian jazz and musical tradition, which began with the swing band, Celestial Gents (1937-1941). Hope LEE and Ka Nin CHAN are two of Canada's most distinguished contemporary composers.
Chinese schools date from the 1890s. At their peak in the 1930s, there were 26 across the country. In BC they were particularly important when attempts were made to segregate Chinese children. Even when professional fields were closed to them after graduation, the Chinese were never legally prohibited from attending universities. With the growth of family life in the 1950s and the increasing affluence and professional character of the Chinese communities in the 1960s, much larger numbers of Chinese students sought higher education. In 2001, more than one quarter of Chinese Canadians had earned a university degree.
Today, English language education continues to play a major role in Chinese Canadian families, and the result has been an influx into many professions, including engineering, sciences, research, medicine, pharmacy, law and higher education. The emphasis on education is a long-standing feature of Chinese life as a result of the Confucian tradition of learning and scholarship. The Chinese language is still considered a significant part of education, especially with the growing economic prominence of China.
To educate the general public about the Chinese in Canada, the Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia was created in 2004. The Richard Charles Lee Canada-Hong Kong Library at the University of Toronto is a dedicated resource centre for Chinese Canadian studies. The Chinese Culture and Education Society of Canada (based in Toronto) helps to connect China and Canada.
Politics and Civil Rights
The Chinese in Canada have always been politically active. During the 19th century, they fought discrimination and exclusion. One of the first civil rights organizations to support Chinese Canadians was the Victoria Workingmen's Protection Association, established in 1876. Its major aim was to rally against abysmal working conditions and economic restrictions. In 1878, Victoria's Chinese merchants protested against the $60 provincial head tax by petitioning Ottawa to eliminate the fee. Just before the enactment of the 1923 Exclusion Act, the Chinese Association of Canada went to Ottawa to lobby against the bill.
Chinese Canadians gained the vote federally and provincially in 1947. Until the 1950s, Chinese depended upon their association leaders and other intermediaries who had relationships with Canadian politicians to speak on their behalf in Canadian affairs. They later became more active in Canadian politics, particularly for the LIBERAL PARTY, partly because of its identification with relaxed immigration regulations. In various places, mayors and counsellors of Chinese origin have been elected. Chinese Canadian political firsts included Douglas Jung (Member of Parliament, 1957-1962), Raymond Chan (federal cabinet minister, elected 1993), Ida Chong (provincial cabinet minister in BC, elected 2001), and Alan Lowe (mayor of Victoria, 1999-2008). Philip LEE became Manitoba's first Asian lieutenant-governor and Norman KWONG, Canada's first professional Chinese Canadian football player, also became Alberta's first Chinese lieutenant-governor.
The watershed event politicizing the Chinese nationally in Canada and, in turn, establishing the Chinese Canadian National Council (CCNC), was the infamous W5 controversy in which CTV aired a segment called "Campus Giveaway" on 30 September 1979. At the heart of "Campus Giveaway" was the allegation that foreign students were taking the place of white Canadians in such career-related university programs as pharmacy, engineering and medicine. Since the "foreign faces" in the report were Chinese, W5's implication was that all students of Chinese origin were foreigners, and that Canadian taxpayers were subsidizing Chinese students - who could never be truly Canadian in spite of the fact that almost all of the identified students were Canadian citizens. Sixteen anti-W5 committees from Victoria to Halifax mobilized the Chinese population and secured a vague apology from CTV. Since then, chapters of CCNCs were created to protect the civil and HUMAN RIGHTS of the Chinese in Canada.
The head tax has always been a source of grievance in Chinese Canadian communities. Protests and demonstrations calling for an official apology and redress were staged across the nation. Under much community pressure, Prime Minister Stephen Harper on 22 June 2006 offered an apology in Cantonese. An official directive made in Parliament ordered compensation for the head tax of approximately $20 000 to be paid to survivors or their spouses.
The Hong Kong version of modern Chinese culture is very strongly reflected in Chinese Canadian society today, yet some traditional, familiar values continue. For example, many young working Chinese continue to commit resources to support their parents, and many grandparents live with their children. Institutional care facilities such as the Yee Hong and Mon Sheong Nursing Care facilities in Toronto have been established in cities across Canada. In large Chinese Canadian communities professionals tend to sponsor cultural exchanges with China, Hong Kong and Taiwan to encourage the preservation of Chinese culture and to promote the fair representation of Chinese Canadians in the media, among other issues. Canada-based Beijing and Cantonese opera groups exist and MARTIAL ARTS organizations have flourished.
Language maintenance was essential before 1947, when only jobs in Chinatown requiring knowledge of Chinese were open to young Chinese Canadians. Although the use of written Chinese has declined, newspapers continue to be an important form of community expression. Chinese-language papers have long been published in Vancouver and Toronto, and North American editions of Chinese-owned newspapers such as the World Journal Daily, Sing Tao and the Ming Pao are flourishing. As of 1994, each paper was selling more than 30 000 copies daily and attracted advertising from the Chinese Canadian community as well as from mainstream businesses. Other notable newspapers are CC Times, Global Chinese Press, and Today Daily News. Chinese language television stations like Fairchild and OMNI's Chinese programs have also developed in major cities, with Cantonese and Mandarin situation comedies, news, documentaries and movies as the daily fare.
Chinese Canada, with more than 1.3 million people, or 4% of the population, is a dynamic ethnic community with links to the Chinese global diaspora and especially to the economic growth of the People's Republic of China. The Chinese Canadian community, as part of the larger Canadian nation, possesses all the characteristics of English Canada or French Canada: dynamic cultural organizations, financial impact, political acumen, expanded populace, a global reach and social stability.
Canada remains an attractive nation for global immigration. Despite the media coverage in 1999 of the economic refugees from the Fujian province in southern China, who met with mixed reactions and were kept in detention when they first arrived in BC, the Chinese have the largest influx of immigrants to Canada after Great Britain and Europe. Chinese Canada continues to evolve within the Canadian community, fortified by an energetic entrepreneurial spirit, an emphasis on education as a vehicle of career upward mobility, a developing literary and cultural tradition, popular cuisine, strong family values, and an attachment to such important Canadian values as SOCIAL DEMOCRACY, equality and freedom.
Author ANTHONY B. CHAN
Robert Amos and Kileasa Wong, Inside Chinatown: Ancient Culture in a New World (2009); Kay Anderson, Vancouver's Chinatown (1991); Anthony B. Chan, Gold Mountain (1983), Li Ka-shing: Hong Kong's Elusive Billionaire (1996), "Chinese Canada: Reflections on Historical Eras and Watersheds," Polyphony (2000), Perpetually Cool: The Many Lives of Anna May Wong, 1905-1961 (2007), "Combating Television Biases: The Anti-W5 Movement," Television: Masks and Mirrors (2010); Lien Chao, Beyond Silence: Chinese Canadian Literature in English (1997); Wei Djao, Being Chinese: Voices from the Diaspora (2003); David Dyzenhaus, Calling Power to Account: Law, Reparations and the Chinese Canadian Head Tax Case (2005); Lister and Kan Chen, "Celestial Gents," Ginger Post (2009), http://gingerpost.com/?p=497; Hung-Min Chiang, Chinese Islanders: Making a Home in the New World (2006); Denise Helly, Les Chinois à Montréal: 1877-1951 (1987); Ban Seng Hoe, Enduring Hardship: The Chinese Laundry in Canada (2003); Xiaoping Li, Voices Rising: Asian Canadian Cultural Activism (2007); Patricia Roy, The Oriental Question: Consolidating a White Man's Province, 1914-41 (2003).
Links to Other Sites
The website for the Historica-Dominion Institute, parent organization of The Canadian Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Check out their extensive online feature about the War of 1812, the "Heritage Minutes" video collection, and many other interactive resources concerning Canadian history, culture, and heritage.
PASSAGES TO CANADA
Immigrants to Canada from around the world have encountered many hardships, opportunities, and successes as they set out to establish a better life for themselves and their families in their adopted country. Listen to some of their personal stories at the "Passages to Canada" website. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
This beautifully illustrated site explores the relationship between East and West from earliest times to the present with a focus on the very complex Asian experience in Canada. Search for specific topics and themes. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
A Heritage Minute about the Chinese people who came to British Columbia in 1882 to work on the final link of the Canadian Pacific Railway. From the Historica-Dominion Institute. See also related learning materials.
The Chung Collection
This multimedia UBC website features poignant stories about the hardships and challenges faced by Chinese immigrants who came to Canada in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples
The website for the "Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples." Click on the links for feature articles about Canada's many multicultural communities, access to their extensive digital archives collection, learning modules, and much more. From "Multicultural Canada."
Enduring Hardship — Chinese Hand Laundry
This Museum of Civilization exhibit illustrates the tedious working conditions in old Chinese hand laundries in Canadian communities.
The Edge of the World: BC's Early Years
Watch a series of short films about the events, people, and places that shaped British Columbia's early history. Features a wealth of archival photographs. From knowledge.ca.
View a video that chronicles the stellar business career of Tong Louie at the website for the Business Laureates of British Columbia Hall of Fame.
Chinese Canadians: The Wong Kung Lai and Chu Man Ming Family
A lesson plan that focuses on how contemporary society might deal with historical cases of predjudice and injustice. From The Historical Thinking Project.
The website for "Ginger Post," an online magazine that offers articles, reviews, commentary, and many other interesting features that reflect the history and cultural diversity of the Chinese Canadian community.
An obituary for esteemed Canadian businessman and community leader Milton Wong. From maytree.com.
Chinese Canadian Stories
The “Chinese Canadian Stories: Uncommon Histories from a Common Past” web portal, a multi-disciplinary project that offers various perspectives on Chinese Canadian history and heritage. From the University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser University, and partners.
Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada
This website offers Canadian population data (2006) by ethnic origin. Also, find information for individual provinces and territories by clicking the "Select a view" window above the chart. For more information, click on the "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada" link at the top of the page. From the website for Statistics Canada.
The website for explorASIAN, celebrating Asian Heritage Month in Canada.
A history of Toronto's vibrant Chinese community. From the Chinese Canadian National Council Toronto Chapter.
Asian Heritage in Canada
References and resources about Asian heritage in Canada. Check out the profiles of prominent Asian Canadians in the arts. From the Ryerson University website.
A profile of prominent British Columbia resident Douglas Jung. From Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
Virtual Museum of Asian Canadian Cultural Heritage
A wide-ranging online resource about Asian Canadian history and culture. Also features profiles of prominent Asian Canadians. From the Canadian Foundation for Asian Culture (Central Ontario) Inc.
Chinese Benevolent Association of Vancouver
The website for the Chinese Benevolent Association of Vancouver. Check the "Parade" links to see posters, programs, and photos from some of the recent annual Chinese New Year Parades held in Vancouver's Chinatown community.
About early Chinese immigrants who ventured to Canada and settled in Victoria and other communities around British Columbia. From the University of Victoria.
Chinese Canadian Historical Timeline
Peruse an interactive multimedia timeline that covers Chinese-Canadian history. From the Chinese Canadian National Council.
The website for AsiaNetwork Canada, a network that promotes awareness of Asian culture and heritage in Canada. Also sponsors the annual AsiaNetwork Asian of the Year Awards, which recognize extraordinary Canadian citizens of Asian descent.
David See Chai Lam Centre for International Communication
The website for the David Lam Centre, which works with academic and community organizations on programs that promote awareness of Asian culture and foster intercultural understanding.
Heroes Remembers – Canadian Chinese Veterans
This site is dedicated to the Chinese-Canadian men and women who took part in the Second World War. From Veterans Affairs Canada.
Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
An extensive resource about economic, security, political and social issues related to Canada's relations with Asia. Check out the "National Conversation on Asia" to voice your opinions about key Canada-Asia issues.
Canadian Asian Studies Association
The website for the Canadian Asian Studies Association, a national voluntary, non-profit organization which seeks to expand and disseminate knowledge about Asia in Canada.
A blog devoted to Vancouver's multicultural heritage.
An online feature about Larry Kwong,the first Chinese-Canadian NHL player, who was inducted into the BC Hockey Hall of Fame in 2010. From the gunghaggisfatchoy.com website.
A profile of Tong Louie, an esteemed Vancouver entrepreneur and philanthropist. From the UBC Faculty of Land and Food Systems.
A tribute to the late Vancouver businessman and philanthropist Milton Wong. From the International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Off the Wall: Vancouver Chinatown’s New Murals Come to Life
About a Vancouver mural project that depicts Chinese Canadians from various periods in Canadian history. From woodwardsmile.com.
In the Shadow of Gold Mountain
View a documentary that features stories from the last living survivors of the Chinese Head Tax and Exclusion Act, a set of laws imposed to single out the Chinese as unwanted immigrants to Canada from 1885 to 1947. From the National Film Board.
Lion Dance Wedding Performance
View a video clip of a lion dance performance at a Chinese Canadian wedding ceremony. From YouTube.
Chinese Wedding Traditions
An online guide to Chinese wedding traditions. From the website for the Chinese Historical and Cultural Project.
In the Colonies of Tang
View the full text of an archaeological study of early Chinese communities in British Columbia's North Cariboo District. From the Library and Archives Canada website.
Former B.C. Lt.-Gov. David Lam dies
A CBC News obituary for David C. Lam, Canada's first Asian-Canadian lieutenant-governor.
Attitudes Toward Chinese Immigrants to British Columbia 1858-1885
Download a copy of a thesis about the widespread discrimination suffered by Chinese immigrants in BC during the late 19th century. From Simon Fraser University.
Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia
The website for the Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia. See book reviews, an events guide, recipes, and more.
Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden
The website for the Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden, an authentic representation of an age – old garden tradition which reached its peak in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Canadian Stamp Sets: Chinese Lunar New Year
See the Royal Philatelic Society of Canada display of stamp sets honouring the Chinese lunar New Year.
The website for the documentary "LOST YEARS," which chronicles the lives and travails of the Chinese diaspora in Canada.
Passages to Canda: Gu Xiong
Listen to Gu Xiong describe how he overcame the culture shock of his first experiences in Canada at the Banff Centre in Alberta. Part of the "Passages to Canada" site, which features many stories told by immigrants to Canada from countries around the world. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
From C to C: Chinese Canadian Stories of Migration
Explore an interactive timeline that chronicles the multidimensional history of Chinese immigration to Canada. View archival documents, photographs, and videos that focus on the legal and societal obstacles encountered by migrating Chinese, as well as the substantial achievements of Chinese-Canadians through the generations. From Simon Fraser University and S.U.C.C.E.S.S. (a Vancouver multicultural organization).
Shawnadithit grew anxious waiting for her uncle, Longnon, to return to camp at the junction of Badger Brook and the Exploits River, deep in the wilds of Newfoundland...