Alexander MACKENZIE passed through Beaver territory in 1793 and by 1794 the Northwest Company established a fur-trading post near the present town of Fort St. John. Dane-zaa oral history gives a vivid account of early fur trade history.
Social System and Early Economy
The Beaver traditionally lived in small nomadic hunting bands of 25-30 people. They came together into larger groups along the Peace River for summer ceremonies at which they sang, danced and played the hand game, a guessing competition between teams of men. Beaver children were sent into the bush on vision quests to gain supernatural power from the animals. Most food came from hunting large game animals: bison in the prairie country near the Peace River, moose in the muskeg and forests, caribou near the mountains, and bears. Before they obtained firearms from fur traders, hunting was often done by groups of people who surrounded animals. These communal hunts were led by religious leaders or prophets known as "Dreamers." Later the Dreamers adopted an indigenous form of Christianity that blended traditional prophecy and Roman Catholic teachings. The first Roman Catholic missionary, Henri Faraud, visited the Beaver in 1858.
The introduction of rifles made individual hunters more efficient. Within 25 years of first contact, hunting to supply furs to the traders led to a decline in game populations, particularly bison, which became extinct in the area by 1900. The Dreamers tried to help their people understand and anticipate the changes brought about by White people. Although most Beaver had converted to Roman Catholicism since the early 1800s many now accept evangelical Protestantism and combine organized religions with traditional beliefs. The Dane-zaa have adapted successfully to the new conditions.
Today, several Dane-zaa bands have built new halls that serve as community centres on their reserves. Bands (referred to as First Nations) as well as individuals manage businesses that serve the oil and gas and timber industries.
The Beaver of Fort St. John signed Treaty No 8 in 1900, formalizing their right to live by hunting and trapping (see INDIAN TREATIES). Their understanding was that the treaty was a peace and sharing agreement between sovereign nations rather than a surrender of title. The Beaver bands continue to negotiate with the federal government regarding treaty lands, entitlements, and the number of Beaver First Nation members.
Many Beaver continue to live on INDIAN RESERVES and approximately half of all registered Beaver live off reserve; there are four Beaver reserves in BC and two in Alberta. After a long court case, the former Fort St. John Band was granted the right to negotiate a settlement for the improper transfer of mineral rights to their former reserve land. They have also entered into negotiations with the federal government regarding a shortfall of treaty land entitlement following extensive research to establish the actual number of people when the reserve land was first surveyed and allocated. Much of their former land is developed for farming and petroleum production, but hunting and trapping are still part of the northern part of their territory and are important activities as sources of food and income, and help to maintain a sense of identity.
Author ROBIN RIDINGTON
P. Goddard, The Beaver Indians (1917); J. Helm, ed, Handbook of North American Indians, vol 6: Subarctic (1981); R. Ridington, Trail to Heaven: Knowledge and Narrative in a Northern Native Community (1988), Little Bit Know Something: Stories in a Language of Anthropology (1990).
Links to Other Sites
Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge
The website for the Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge, which features Canada's largest essay writing competition for Aboriginal youth (ages 14-29) and a companion program for those who prefer to work through painting, drawing and photography. See their guidelines, teacher resources, profiles of winners, and more. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples
The website for the "Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples." Click on the links for feature articles about Canada's many multicultural communities, access to their extensive digital archives collection, learning modules, and much more. From "Multicultural Canada."
Languages of Canada
A comprehensive online database of languages currently in use in Canada. Also provides details about extinct languages. Check out the "language maps" for more information. Based on "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition." From SIL International, a US website.
Dane-zaa Stories & Songs: Dreamers and the Land
Explore the oral histories of the Dane-zaa through the stories and songs brought to the people by Dreamers (Nááchê). Also learn about the Doig River First Nations, one of the Dane-zaa communities of the Peace River area of BC. Includes an online teachers' guide and notes about the Dane-zaa Záágéʔ language, a member of the Athabaskan language family. Requires Flash or Quick Time media programs. From the Virtual Museum of Canada.